Christian Cyclopedia

About the Cyclopedia

Affelmann, Johann

(Johannes; Joannes; Affelmannus; von Affeln; 1588–1624). Luth. theol.; b. Soest, Westphalia; educ. Soest, Dortmund, Corbach, and Lippe; prof. theol. Rostock 1609. Works include Syntagma exercitationum academicarum de articulis fidei inter Pontificios & Calvinianos controversis; De descensu Christi ad inferos.

Affiliation of Lutheran Movements

(ALMS). Formed 1974 in Seattle, Washington; voluntary fellowship of complementary ministries individually and corporately committed to “a total discipleship to Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and … to a constant revival within the Lutheran Church.” Constituting movements: Fellowship* of Luth.. Bible Institutes (The Canadian* Luth. Bible Institute; Lutheran* Bible Institute of California, formerly The California Luth. Bible School; The Lutheran* Bible Institute of Seattle), Lutheran* Evangelistic Movement; Lutheran* Youth Alive; Lutheran* Youth Encounter; World* Mission Prayer League. Other mems.: Good* News for Israel (1978), Latin* American Luth. Mission (1978), Lutheran* Lay Renewal (1981).


A. General Description.

For current information see CIA World Factbook.

1. Area: ca. 11,700,000 sq. mi. Ethnic groups include Berbers, mainly Caucasian in origin, aborigines of the Sahara and the Medit. states; Arabs from W Asia, in Egypt and N Afr.; Blacks, chiefly in the Sudan, from the Nile to the Atlantic; Bantu, almost all tribes S of the equator (including Kaffir,* Zulu, Basuto, Bechuana, Matabele); Pygmies, Bushmen, Hottentots* scattered through Bantu area.

Dynamic and drastic soc., pol., and cultural changes are in progress.

2. Religion. Perhaps half the people are pagan, one third are Muslim, and one sixth Christian. RCs total about half the Christian pop., Prots. about two fifths, Copts (see Coptic Church) about one eighth. Alexandria and Carthage were early strongholds of Christianity (see Carthage, Synods and Councils of; Clement of Alexandria; Commentaries, Biblical; Exegesis, 3; Origen; Schools, Early Christian, 1; Tertullian). The ch., weakened by controversy, was almost annihilated by Muslim invasions in the 7th c.

3. The diversified forms of paganism usually embody 3 points: belief in a supreme being; belief in survival after death; belief in mana (impersonal force. Fetishism* is a form of spirit worship connected with the use of fetishes. Animism (see Primitive Religion) and dynamism* are prevalent. Fears and superstitions are connected with belief in demons and the conviction that objects are endowed with mysterious qualities by means of magical rites. Ancestors are revered, consulted, and honored. Amulets* are used extensively. See also Ancestor Worship.

4. Christianity has made phenomenal penetrations of Afr. life and culture. The African is deeply religious and able to grasp lofty spiritual truth.

5. For Luth. beginnings in Afr. see B 5, D 7, E 2.

6. In the 1st part of the 19th c. there were 5 avenues of approach to the heart of the continent. (a) Miss. penetration from the S was begun 1799, when J. T. Vanderkemp* of the LMS began work among Hottentots and others. He was joined 1817 by R. Moffat,* and work was extended to the Bantu. (b) Work from the N was begun 1825 in Egypt and Ethiopia by by the CMS (c) The workers were forced out of Ethiopia 1838, and J. L. Krapf,* a Luth., went to Zanzibar and began a miss. on Mombasa. (d) The Bap. Missionary Soc. began work in Sierra Leone 1795 but abandoned it 1797. The CMS took up the work, 1804. (e) H. M. Stanley's crossing of Afr. opened cen. Afr. via the Congo R. (See also F 1). The Bap. Missionary Soc. and the Livingstone Inland Miss. entered the Congo. 1878.

B. South Africa.

1. People's Rep. of Angola. Area: ca. 481,350 sq. mi. Portvgese overseas province (Port. West Afr.; first contacted by Port. 1482 and controlled by them except 1641–48, when the Dutch occupied the ports) until 1975, when portvgal. withdrew its forces and granted indep.; civil war followed. Ethnic groups: more than 90% Afr., of many tribal groups, mostly Bantu; several hundred thousand whites; a smaller number of mixed descent. RCm is strong. The Bap. Missionary Soc began work 1878; ABCFM 1880; Meths. 1885, who est. Taylor Institute (named after W. Taylor*) at Quessua, near Malange (or Malanje), N cen. Angola; Plymouth Bretheren 1889; South Africa Gen. Miss. 1914; United Ch. of Can. (see Canada, C) continued work begun by Canadian Presbs.; Canadian Bap. For. Mission Bd. began work 1954.

2. Rep. of Malawi. Area: figures vary from 36,100 to ca. 45,750 sq. mi., the higher figure including all major inland waters. Pop. Former Nyasaland. D Livingstone* arrived 1859; Brit. protectorate 1891; part of central African Fed. (with Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] and Southern Rhodesia [now Rhodesia]) 1953; seceded from the fed (which dissolved) 1963; indep. as Malawi 1964–65; mem. Brit. Comm. and UN 1964; rep. 1966. Ethnic composition: mostly descendants of Bantu who entered the country 16th–19th cents.; ca. 12,000 Indians and ca. 8,000 of Eur. descent. Official language: English. Religion: ca. 50% Christian, 33% Muslim, 17% animist.

D. Livingstone inspired 3 missions in Nyasaland: Universities' Miss. to Cen. Afr. (first missionaries reached Nayasaland 1860); Livingstonia Miss. of U. F. C. of Scot. 1875; Blantyre Miss. of the Ch. of Scot. 1876, Chs. brought into being by the latter 2 missions formed the Ch. of Cen. Afr. Others South Africa Gen. Miss. 1900; Seventh-day Adv. 1902; Nat. Bap. Conv.; Jehovah's Witnesses.

3. Rep. of Botswana. Area: ca. 224,600 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 900,000. Former Brit. protectorate Bechuanaland; fully indep. 1966; mem. Comm. of Nations and UN 1966. Ethnic groups: mostly Bantu; ca. 30,000 Bushmen; ca. 5,000 Eur.; smaller groups of Asian, Hottentot, and mixed origin. Official language: English. Religion: ca. 15% Christian, the rest practice tribal religions. R. Moffat* made frequent miss. journeys in Bechuanaland; John Mackenzie (1835–99) began work 1864 for the LMS and worked here till 1883. Others include Hermannsburg Miss., Dutch Ref. Ch., U. F. C. of Scot., Seventh-day Advs. Khama (Khamé; Kgama; ca. 1837–1923; converted 1860; king 1875) was an outstanding Christian. LCMS began work 1982. See also Paris Evangelical Missionary Society.

4. People's Rep. of Mozambique. Area: ca. 308, 770 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 12,700,000. Port. overseas province (Port. East Afr.; contacted by Port. 1498; colonized 1505) till 1975, when it became indep. Ethnic groups: mostly Afr., chiefly of Bantu stock; ca. 1.5% Eur.; fewer of mixed descent. Languages: Port.; native dialects. Religion: Muslim, Christian, animist. RCs entered 1560. Brit. Meths. began work at Delagoa Bay 1823. The ABCFM after an unsccessful attempt 1879, tried again at Inhambane 1883 but soon mioved the miss. to Rhodesia. Am. Meths. under W. Taylor* took over the work at Inhambane and est. Cen. Training School at Cambine. The Swiss Miss. in South Afr. began work in the 1870s, Ch. of Eng. 1893; work begun by the Ch. of Scot. was taken over by the South Africa Gen. Miss. 1936. Others include Meth. Ch. of South Afr.; Pent. Assemblies of Can.; Bap. Miss. of Mozambique; Free Bap. Miss.; SPG

5. Rep. of South Africa. Area: ca. 435,870 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 30,000,000. Formerly Union* of South Afr.; indep. rep. 1961 and formally withdrew from the Comm. of Nations; mem. UN 1945. Ethnic groups: ca. 68% Africans (Bantus); ca. 19% whites (largely of Dutch and Brit. descent); ca. 10% colored (mixed white and African); ca. 3% Asians. Official languages: English and Afrikaans; others include Bantu dialects, Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Telugu. Religion: mostly Christian, chiefly Prot.; ancestor worship practiced in some areas.

Gers. and Scands. arrived with Dutch colonists at Capetown 1652; Lutheranism was in evidence at least by 1665. Moravians (see Schmidt, Georg) entered the field, 1737, discontinued work 1743/44, resumed 1792. J. T. Vanderkemp* began work for the LMS 1799; followed by R. Moffat*; J. Philip*; D. Livingstone*; Meths. (1816). Scot. Presbs. began 1818, came under supervision of U. F. C. of Scot. 1900; founded Lovedale School. The Dutch Ref. Ch. ordained its first missionary to Africans 1826. The South Africa Gen. Miss. (Cape Gen. Miss.) began 1889. The Rhenish* Miss. Soc. and Berlin* Miss. Soc. I entered the field 1829/30 and gained firm foothold in Cape Colony. The Hermannsburg Miss. (1850s) made auspicious progress. (see also Behrens, Henry William). For early Norw. Miss. Soc. efforts see Schreuder, Hans Paludan Smith. The Ch. of Swed. Miss. began in the 1870s. Other Luths. include the Hanover Ev. Luth. Free Ch. Miss. (see Mission of the Evangelical Lutheran Free Churches) and the Bapedi Ch. (an indep. Afr. Luth. Ch.). The Ev. Luth. Ch. in Zulu, Xhosa, and Swaziland was formed July 7, 1960, by the Mankankanana Luth. Syn. (ELC), the Zulu-Xhosa-Swazi Syn. (Berlin Miss. Soc. I), the Ev. Luth. Zulu Ch. (Ch. of Swed. Miss.), and the Norw. Luth. Zulu Syn. (Norw. Miss. Soc.); the name was soon changed to The Ev. Luth. Ch. in Southern Africa (South-Eastern Region). The Ev. Luth. Zulu Ch. of the Hermannsburg Miss. joined in a few yrs.

Others: include ABCFM; Assem. of God; Ch. of the Nazarene; Ev. Alliance Miss.; Mahon Miss.; Meth. Ch.; Salv. Army; Seventh-day Adv.; Mormons; Jehovah's Witnesses.

See also Ministry, Education of, XI A; Namaqualand; Natal.

6. Kingdom of Lesotho. Area: ca. 11,720 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 1,400,000; Former Brit. protectorate Basutoland; indep. as Kingdom of Lesotho 1966; surrounded by Rep. of South Afr.; mem. Comm. of Nations; and UN 1966. Ethnic groups; nearly all Basotho, N Bantu people; ca. 2,000 S. Afr. whites; ca. 1,000 Asians and mixed race. Official languages: Sotho (or Sesotho) and English. Religion: Christianity ca. 70%, animism ca. 30% (natives worship Modimo, regarded as supreme being). Tribes unified by Chief Moshesh (Moshoeshoe I; Mshweshwe; ca. 1786–1870), at whose invitation the Paris* Ev. Miss. Soc. entered 1833. The Ch. of Eng. began work 1875. Others include A. M. E. Ch.; Nat. Bap. Conv. of Am.; Assem. of God; Seventh-day Adv.

7. Kingdom of Swaziland. Area: ca. 6,705 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 600,000. Former Brit. protectorate; indep. and mem. Comm. of Nations and UN 1968. Ethnic groups: Afr. (mainly Swazi, who are Bantu and akin to Zulu); ca. 9,000 Eur.; ca. 12,000 of mixed parentage. Official languages: English and Swazi. Religion: ca. 57% Christian; ca. 43% traditional beliefs; ca. 500 Muslim. Am. Meths. began work in the 1880s. Others: include The Ev. Alliance Miss.; Ch. of the Nazarene; Full Gospel Ch. of God; seventh-day Adv.; Swed. Alliance Miss.; Pilgrim Holiness Ch.; RCs; South Africa Gen. Miss. (now Africa Ev. Fellowship).

8. South-West Afr. (South West Afr.; Namibia; formerly German Southwest Africa). Area: ca. 318,830 sq. mi. Pop. (1981 est.): 1,038,000. Ger. colony from 1884; South Afr. mandate 1920; UN ;Gen. Assem resolved 1968 to revoke the mandate, but S. Afr. continued control; indep. 1990. Ethnic groups: mostly African, including Ovambo, Damara (including Herero), Nama (a Hottentot people), and bushmen; ca. 12–15% whites, mostly of South African and Ger. descent; a smaller number of mixed descent. Official languages: Afrikaans and Eng. Ger. and tribal languages are widely used. Religion: parts of the nonwhite pop. are animist; many Africans are Christian.

LMS began work among Hottentots, 1805. Others: include Meth. Ch. of S. Afr.; Fin. Cong. Miss.

The Rhenish* Mission Soc. commissioned K. H. Hahn* (1818–95) 1841) He assoc. industrial and agricultural activity with his miss. work. This soc. absorbed the work done by the London and Meth. societies. October 4, 1957, the Rhenish Miss. Ch. constituted itself the Ev. Luth. Ch. in SW Afr. It est. a training coll. for teachers and evangelists, the Paulinum, at Karibib and many primary schools; later a new Paulinum was built at Otjimbingwe in cooperation with the Ev. Luth. Ovambokavango (or Ovambo-Kavango) Ch., est. by the Finnish Missionary Soc., which entered the field 1868/70 (see also Ovamboland; Rautanen, Martti).

See also Ministry, Education of, XI A; Namaqualand;

9. Dem. Rep. of Madagascar (called Malagasy Rep. until 1975). Area: ca. 226,660 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 9,200,000. Island ca. 250 mi. off SE coast of Afr.; first contacted by Europeans in the 16th c.; Fr. colony, 1896–1958; autonomous rep. within the Fr. community on October 14, 1958; indep. mem. of the Community on June 25, 1960; mem. UN September 20, 1960. Ethnic composition: of Malayan-Indonesian origin, with Arab and Afr. strains admixed; ca. 40,000 Fr., 14,000 Indians, 8,000 Chinese, ca. 35,000 immigrants from the Comoro Islands (see Comoros, Federal Islamic Republic of the). Official languages: Malagasy and Fr.; Hova and other dialects are widely spoken. Religion: animistic with traces of polytheism; ancestor worship prevalent; witch doctors have great influence; supreme being called “Fragrant One”; Christianity and Islam are strong. Radàma I (1791–1828; king 1810–28) invited missionaries. LMS began work 1818. Radàma was succeeded by wife, Rànavàlona I (1800–61; queen 1828–61), who persecuted Christians. Miss. efforts recommenced 1861/62. Rànavàlona II (became queen 1868) was baptized soon after coronation.

CMS and SPG began work 1864, Norw. Mission Soc. 1866 (see also Dahle, Lars Nilsen; Ministry, Education of, XI A), Brit. Friends 1867, Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. 1892, Luth. Free Ch. 1895.

In 1896 a wave of persecution incited by Jesuits swept over the island.

In 1950 the Luths. organized the Fiangona Loterana Malagasy (Malagasy Luth. Ch.).

10. Zimbabwe. Area: ca. 150,870 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 10,500,000. Apparently occupied by africans since before the 4th c. AD Bantu are thought to have entered 5th–10th cents. Port. explorers reached the country in the 16th c.; it came to be called Rhodesia after the Brit. South Africa Co. of Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902; Brit. administrator and financier in South Africa), assisted by Brit. troops, conquered the area in the 1890s; Brit. colony called Southern Rhodesia est. 1923; part of Cen. African Fed. (with Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] and Nyasaland [now Rep. of Malawi]) 1953; the fed. dissolved 1963, when Nyasaland seceded; Southern Rhodesia dropped “Southern” from its name, but the Brit. Parliament did not formalize this change; indep. from Brit. proclaimed 1965, rep. proclaimed 1970, but Brit. and the UN did not recognize the rep. Unrest led to guerilla war that lasted ca. 7 yrs.; the name of the country was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979; after a brief return to Brit. colonial status an indep. democratic state was est. 1980 and the official name became Zimbabwe. Mem. UN 1980. Ethnic composition: ca. 96% Bantu, 3% Caucasians (mainly Brit.), 1% Coloreds, Asians. Official language: Eng.; others: Shona, Ndebele. Religion: Most Africans practice traditional tribal religion, largely animism; perhaps ca. 15%, and most whites, are Christian; others include Muslim.

R. Moffat* began work in S Rhodesia 1859 for the LMS; the Ch. of Eng., the Meth. Missionary Soc., and the Dutch Ref. Ch. began work 1891; the ABCFM began work 1893 and est. Mt. Silinda Institute and Pierce Mem. Hosp. Others include Seventh-day Adventists 1895; Meth. Episc. Ch. toward the end of the 19th c.; South Africa Gen. Miss. 1900; The Ev. Alliance Miss. 1942; S. Baps. 1950. The Christian Conference of S. Rhodesia was formed 1954.

11. Rep. of Zambia. Area: ca. 290,585 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 6,000,000. Explored by D. Livingstone* bet. 1851 and 1873; the Brit. South Africa Co. took over administration of the territory 1891 and called it Northern Rhodesia (on the name see B 10); Brit. protectorate 1924; indep. rep. of Zambia and mem. Brit. Comm. and UN 1964. Ethnic groups: ca. 98% Bantu; ca. 70,000 Europeans. Official language: Eng. Most follow traditional religions; ca. 70,000 Christians; Asians practice Islam and Hinduism.

F. Coillard* began work 1885 in N Rhodesia for the Paris* Ev. Miss. Soc., followed by the LMS (D. Livingstone). Others include Eng. Meths.; Jehovah's Witnesses 1949; Plymouth Brethren*; Salv. Army; Seventh-day Adventists 1903; South Africa Gen. Miss. 1909; United Missions to the Copper Belt (formed by Universities* Miss. to Cen. Afr., Meth. Missionary Soc., Ch. of Scot., United Soc. for Christian Literature, and LMS).

C. West Africa

1. Rep. of Senegal. Area: ca. 76,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 5,900,000. Long a Fr. possession; part of Fr. Union 1946; autonomous rep. in the Fr. Community 1958; part of the short-lived Mali Fed. 1959–60; indep. rep. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: ca. 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 16.5% Serer, 9% Mandingo, 7% Tukulors; a small number of non-Afr., largely Fr. Official language: Fr.; traditional languages include Wolof, Fulani, Mende. Religion: ca. 80–90% Muslim; 4 1/2–10% Christian; the rest follow traditional beliefs, with animism strong (perhaps up to 15%). RCs have done extensive mission work.

The Paris* Ev. Miss. Soc. entered 1862. Its gains were small. In the 20th c. the Worldwide Evangelization Crusade and Assemblies of God Mission entered the field.

2. Islamic Rep. of Mauritania. Area: ca. 398,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 1,000,000. Fr. est. a protectorate 1903; Mauritania was made a Fr. colony 1920; autonomous rep. within the Fr. community 1958; fully indep. of Fr. 1960; mem. UN 1961. Ethnic groups: ca. 80% Moorish, of Arab and Berber stock; ca. 20% Negro Afr. (mainly Tukulor, Sarakolle, Fulani, and Wolof). Official language: Fr.; but Arabic is most common; Wolof and Tukulor are also spoken in the S. Religion: almost all Muslim; Islam is state religion. In 1534 a papal bull required the king of Port. to support RC missionaries. Prots. had done no successful work by 1965.

3. Rep. of Mali. Area: ca. 478,840 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 7,100,000. Fr. Sudan before 1958; called Sudanese Rep. 1958–60; mem. of the short-lived Mali Fed. 1959–60; inherited the name Mali 1960; indep. from Fr. 1960; mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: Bambara, Fulani, Tuareg, Moor, Sarakolle, Songhai, and Malinke. Official language: Fr.; main native languages: Malinke, Bambara, and Dyula. Religion: more than 60% Muslim; 30–34% animistic.

The Gospel Missionary Union began work 1919; tr. Bible into Bambara; emphasized medical work. Christian and Missionary Alliance began at Sikasso, 1923; est. Sudan Bible School at Ntoroso 1936. Others: include United World Mission, Inc.; Ev. Bap. Missions, Inc.

4. Rep. of Guinea. Area: ca. 94,925 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 5,300,000. Once part of Senegal (see C 1); coastal region proclaimed Fr. protectorate 1849; Fr. Guinea 1893; part of Fr. West Afr. 1904; territory 1946; indep. 1957/58; seceded from the Fr. Community immediatel after its formation 1958; joined Ghana (see 11) in the short-lived Union of Indep. Afr. States; mem. UN 1958. Main ethnic groups: ca. 28% Fulani, 17% Malinke, and 9% Susu. Official language: Fr.; main languages: Fulani and Mande (or Mandingo). Religion: ca. 62–65% Muslim, 30% animist, 1–2% Christian.

Occasional RC miss. work began in the 15th c., organized work 1877. Christian and Miss. Alliance began at Baro 1918; HQ est. at Kankan, with Mission press to serve all W Afr. Others include Open Bible Stand. Miss.; Pongas Miss.; Jamaican Home and For. Missionary Soc.; SPG Assemblies of God; Conservative Bap. For. Missionary Soc.; Freewill Baps. Meths.; Seventh-day Adv.; Worldwide Evangelization Crusade.

5. Rep. of The Gambia. Area: ca. 4,360 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 635,000. Former Brit. colony and protectorate; the colony (ca. 69 sq. mi.) included Georgetown and Bathurst (now its capital and since 1973 called Banjul); indep. and mem. UN and Comm. of Nations 1965. Ethnic groups: mainly Mandingo and Wolof in the cen. region, Fulani and Sarakolle in the E, Diolas (or Dyolas) in the W. Official language: Eng.; main spoken languages: Malinke and Wolof. Religion: more than 50% Muslim, ca. 10% Christian, the rest animist. Miss. organizations that have worked in The Gambia include RC Ch., Angl. Ch. (United* Soc. for the Propagation of the gospel), Meth. Ch., and Seventh-day Adv. In 1945 the govt. took over Meth., Angl., and RC primary schools and gave chs. representation on the bds.

6. Rep. of Sierra Leone. Area: ca. 27,700 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 3,700,000. Named and settled by Port. explorers in 15th and 16th centuries. Brit. colony (1808) protectorate 1896; indep. state within the Brit. Comm. and mem. UN 1961; rep. 1971. Ethnic groups: ca. 31–32% Mende (Muslim); ca. 25–30% Temne; many smaller tribes, including Limba, Kono, Sherbro, Vai (or Vei), Susu, Mandingo, Fulani; small number of nontribal Africans; ca. 4% non-Africans. Official language: Eng.; Mende is common in the S, Temne in the N; a form of pidgin Eng. is most widely spoken. Religion: perhaps ca. 66% animist, 28–33% Muslim, 5–10% Christian.

Bap. Miss. Soc. began work 1795, Glasgow and Edinburgh socs. 1797; both failed. CMS entered Sierra Leone 1816. One of its earliest missionaries (1816–23) was the Ger. William A. B. Johnson; an Am. Negro, Edward Jones, became principal of Fourah Bay Coll.; the ch. est. by CMS was organized on an indep. basis 1861. Other missions include Eng. Meth. 1811; Wesleyan Meth. Ch. of Am. 1889; United Brethren in Christ (took over work of the Am. Miss. Soc.); Assem. of God; Missionary Ch. Assoc.

7. Rep. of Liberia. Area: ca. 38,250 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 2,000,000. Colonized 1822 under auspices of the Nat. Colonization Soc., which sent 25,000 Negroes freed from slavery in the US; declared its indep. 1847; patterned its const. after that of the US. Ethnic groups: over 90% native Africans of ca. 25 tribal groups (mainly Gola, Kpelle, Kru, Bassa, and Vai (or Vei). Official and commercial language: Eng.; ca. 30 Afr. dialects are also spoken. Religion: ca. 90% animist, 7% Christian, 3% Muslim.

First colonists were chiefly Meth. and Baptist. L. Carey* and Colin Teague, Negro Baps., went to Liberia 1821 and formed the Bap. Gen. Conv. (successor: Lott Carey Bap. For. Miss. Conv. 1897). The Nat. Bap. Conv. is another Negro group at work in Liberia. M. B. Cox* founded M. E. work 1833. Meth. work is carried on by the A. M. E. Ch. and the Afr. Meth. Episc. Zion Church. Presbs. (Presb. For. Miss. Soc.) and Congrs. (ABCFM) entered 1833. The Am. Episc. Ch. began in the 1820s. S. D. Ferguson* est. an educ. system. Cuttington Coll. and Divinity School, founded 1889, closed 1929, reopened 1949. Morris Officer began work 1860 for ULC Outstanding work was done by D. A. Day* and Emily Day. The Ev. Luth. Ch. in Liberia was organized 1948; see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, III. LCMS work among the Mende began 1978, among the Kisi 1981. Other missions include Assem. of God; several Pent. socs.; Bap. Mid-Miss.; Worldwide Evangelization Crusade; Liberian Inland Miss.

Africa's first miss. radio station, ELWA, opened near Monrovia, 1954.

See also Ministry, Education of, XI A

8. Rep. of Upper Volta (sometimes called Voltaic Rep.; name changed 1984 to ## king ##asso [Eurkina ##]). Area: ca. 105,869 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 6,700,000. Fr. protectorate est. over region 1895/95; part of Upper Senegal-Niger colony; separate colony 1919; divided bet. Niger, Sudan, and Ivory Coast 1932/33; reconstituted as overseas territory in the Fr. Union 1947; autonomous rep. in the Fr. Community 1958; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: Voltaic people (including Mossi; main tribe; observes ancestor worship; is under influence of witch doctors) and Mandingo. Official language: Fr.; main Afr. language: mossi. Religion: animism predominates; ca. 1 million Muslim, 130,000 RCs, 9,000 Prots. Assemblies of God began work 1920/21, Christian and Miss. Alliance among Black Bobos 1923.

9. Rep. of Ivory Coast. Area: ca. 124,500 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 8,800,000. Fr. gained control in the 19th c. and organized Ivory Coast as a colony, protectorate, or territory 1893; autonomous rep. within the Fr. community 1958; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: the main one of ca. 80 include Akan, Kru, Lagoon people, Malinke, Mande, and Voltaic. Official and commercial language: Fr.; Dyula is commonly used. Religion: ca. 60–63% animist, 22.8–25% Muslim, 12–13.5% Christian (mostly RC). In 1924 many chs. est. by W. W. Harris* were taken over by Eng. Wesleyans, but membership dwindled. Others: Christian and Miss. Alliance entered 1930, est. Central Bible School; worldwide Evangelization Crusade 1934; Conservative Bap. For. Miss. Soc. 1947.

10. Rep. of Niger. Area: ca. 490,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 5,800,000. Fr. colony on the Fr. West Africa fed. 1922; autonomous rep. in the Fr. Community 1958; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: over 50% Hausa (largely Muslim); Dyerma-Songhai 20%; Fulani, Tuareg, Tibbu, others. Official language: Fr.; main Afr. languages: Fulani, Tamashek, Dyerma, Songhai, Hausa. Religion: ca. 85% Muslim, 14% animism, 1% Christian. The Sudan Interior Miss. began work 1923; the Ev. Bap. Missions entered later.

11. Rep. of Ghana. Area: ca. 92,100 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 12,400,000. Est. as Gold Coast colony by Brit. 1874; the state of Ghana (Gold Coast and Brit. Togoland) indep. dominion in the Brit. Comm. and mem. UN 1957; joined Guinea (see 4) in the short-lived Union of Indep. Afr. rep. 1960. Ethnic groups: ca. 50 tribes (mostly animistic), including Fanti, Ashanti, Ga, Ewe, Mossi-Dagomba; Hausa are Muslim. Official and commercial language: Eng.; ca. 50 tribal languages and dialects are spoken. Religion: ca. 45% animism, 42–43% Christian, 12% Muslim. Complete Bible in Ga, Twi, and Fanti.

A Moravian miss. was est. at Christiansborg ca. 1736. Basel missionaries arrived 1828, 1832, but all except A. Riis* soon died. In 1843 Riis imported from Jamaica Moravian Christians of Afr. descent and worked with success. After WW I the work passed to the U. F. C. of Scot. cotch work organized as the Ewe Presb. Church. T. Thompson* began work for the SPG, 1752. T. B. Freeman* began work for the Meth. Missionary Soc. 1838. Others include Worldwide Evangelization Crusade 1940, Bap. Mid-Missions 1946, Assemblies of God.

The Synodical* Conf. began work in ca. 1959; first permanent miss. assigned 1961. Congregations est. in Accra, the capital, and Tema, the newly developed seaport. A 2d miss. arrived 1962, est. a cong. in the Kumasi area. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Ghana was inc. 1961, accepted as a sister ch. of the LCMS 1971.

12. People's Rep. of Benin. Area: ca. 43,480 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 3,700,000. Formerly Rep. of Dahomey. The Fr. est. a trading post 1851; annexed by Fr. 1893; part of Fr. West Afr. 1895; Fr. overseas territory 1946; autonomous rep. in Fr. Community 1958; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960; pol. unrest led to a l-party communist state named People's Rep. of Benin. Ethnic groups: ca. 45 Afr. groups, including Fon, Adja, Bariba, and Yoruba; ca. 5,000 Europeans. Official language: Fr.; Afr. dialects include Fon and Yoruba. Religion: ca. 65% animist, 13–15% Muslim, 14% RC, 6% Protestant. Eng. Meths. began work in the middle of the 19th c., Assem. of God 1945, Sudan Interior Miss. 1946.

13. Rep. of Togo. Area: ca. 21,900 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 2,800,000. Former Fr. Togoland; indep. rep. and mem. UN 1960. Eighteen major ethnic groups, including Ewe, Mina, and Cabrai. Official language: Fr.; main indigenous languages: Ewe, Twi, and Hausa; more than 44 dialects. Religion: 66–75% animist, ca. 20% Christian (mostly RC), ca. 5% Muslim. The N. Ger. Miss. Soc. began work among Ewe 1847; during WW I this work was continued by native pastors and the U. F. C. of Scot. LCMS began work 1980 and est. the Eglise Lutherienne au Togo. Others include Paris Ev. Miss. Soc.; Assem. of God.

14. Federal Rep. of Nigeria. Area: ca. 356,700 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 82,300,000. Brit. est. control in the 19th c.; unified colony and protectorate formed 1914; divided into 3 autonomous regions 1954; indep. mem. of Brit. Comm. and mem. UN 1960. Military coups 1966. The E region declared its indep. as Biafra 1967, succumbed 1970. Civilian govt. restored 1979. Ethnic composition: ca. 250 tribal groups, including Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa, Edo, Fulani, and Ibibio. Official and business language: Eng.; ca. 250 Afr. languages and dialects, including Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, and Edo. Religion: ca. 38–44 Muslim, 34–43% animist, 19–22% Christian. In response to a request by repatriated Christian slaves the Wesleyan Miss. Soc. and the CMS began work 1842. The names of H. Townsend,* S. A. Crowther,* and M. Slessor* are prominent in Nigerian miss. hist. The U. F. C. of Scot. began work 1846. The Qua Iboe Miss., founded by S. A. Bill* 1887, concentrated on training nat. leaders.

The Sudan* Interior Miss. began work 1902 at Patigi (Patiji).

The Danish* Sudan Miss. began work 1913. Others include Primitive Meths. 1893; Sudan* United Miss., 1904; United Missionary Soc. (Mennonite); Dutch Ref. Ch. of South Afr.; Salv. Army; Ch. of the Brethren; Christian Missions in Many Lands; Apostolic Ch.; Meth. Missionary Soc. (Eng.); Assem. of God; Ev. Mission Soc. of West Africa. The Christian Council of Nigeria was founded 1930.

In response to a plea from the Ibesikpo people, who had sent Jonathan Udoe Ekong to Am. to find a ch. to give them spiritual guidance, the Synodical* Conf. in 1934 resolved to send at least 2 men to explore the situation. A 3-man delegation (including O. C. A. Boecler* and H. Nau*) visited Nigeria 1935. Nau began work there 1936, soon joined by others. A syn. was formed 1936 under the const. name “The Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Nigeria” WW II difficulty in getting new workers to the field resulted in the opening of a sem. and the training of a nat. ministry. 1949–53 saw the opening of a girls' school, a vocational training school, foundling home, high school, normal school, and hosp., and the expansion of a bookstore and a printshop. 1963 const. name: “The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Nigeria.” 1971 const. name: “The Synod of the Lutheran Church of Nigeria” The ch. was inc. as “Lutheran Church of Nigeria” 1972, amalgamated with the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod mission 1976.

See also Ministry, Education of, XI A.

15. Rep. of Guinea-Bissau. Area: 13,948 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 800,000. First contacted by Port. in the mid-15th c.; slave trade flourished in the 17th and 18th cents.; colonization began in the 19th c.; separate colony 1879; boundaries fixed 1886; called Port. Guinea during more than 500 yrs. of Port. rule; became officially known as Province of Port. Guinea; indep. and mem. UN 1974. Ethnic groups: Balante ca. 30%, Fulani ca. 20%, Mandyako ca. 14%, Malinke ca. 13%, Papel ca. 7% Cape Versian mulatto ca. 2%, Port. ca. 1%. Languages: Port.; Afr. tribal languages. Religion: animist ca. 66%, Muslim ca. 30%, Christian ca. 4%. The worldwide Evangelization Crusade began work 1940.

16. Madeira Islands. Area: ca. 308 sq. mi. Pop. (1976): 270,000. Ca. 360 mi. W of Morocco; contacted as uninhabited islands by Port. and colonized ca. 1419/20; under Sp. 1580–1640; occupied by Brit. 1801, 1807–14; form the Port. administrative dist. of Funchal. Inhabitants mostly of Eur. descent. RCm predominates. R. R. Kalley* began work 1838 that led to indigenous chs. functioning under the Presb. Joint Committee on Ev. Cooperation in Portugal. The M. E. Ch. began work 1897.

17. Rep. of Cape Verde. Area: 1,557 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 340,000. First contacted as uninhabited islands by navigators in Port. service ca. the middle of the 15th c.; ruled privately till 1895, then became part of Port. empire; overseas province, or non-self-governing territory; indep. and mem. UN 1975. Most inhabitants are of mixed Port. and Afr. ancestry. Language: Cape Verdean (Creole Port.). Religion: ca. 98% RC; some animism; Protestantism has been represented on the island of Brava by the Ch. of the Nazsarene.

18. Rep. of Equatorial Guinea. Area: ca. 10,830 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 300,000. First contacted by Port. 1471; ceded to Sp. 1778; developed as Sp. Guinea; Sp. province 1958/60; renamed Equatorial Guines and given limited self-govt. 1963/64; indep. and mem. UN 1968. Ethnic groups: Bube, Nigerian migrants, descendants of liberated slaves, Fang. Am. Presbs. began 1865 and worked under difficulties caused by the authorities; their miss.: Mision Evangelica de Guinea Española. Others Prim. Meth. Ch. 1870; Worldwide Evangelization Crusade 1933.

D. North Africa.

1. Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahirija. Area: ca. 679,500 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 3,200,000. Ruled by Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome, Vandals, Arabs 7th and 11th c., Sp. 1510, Turks 1551; Tripoli became on of the Barbary States; Libya came under It. rule 1912; under Allied administration 1943; indep. kingdom 1951; mem. UN 1955; monarchy overthrown by military junta 1969. Ethnic composition: mainly a racial mixture of Arabs and Berbers. Official and dominant language: Arab.; Eng. and It. are also used. State religion: Sunni Muslim (ca. 97%); ca. 35,000 Christians. RCm has It. and Maltese adherents. Christian missions are restricted by the govt. The North African Mission est. its work in the late 1880s. Other work has been done by the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews and by Seventh-day Adventists.

2. Rep. of Tunisia. Area: ca. 63,378 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 6,700,000. Ruled by Carthage, Rome, (from the 100s BC), Vandals (in the 400s AD), Byzantine govt. (in the 500s). Arabs (in the 600s), Turks (from 1570/74), indep. 1871, ruled by Fr. as a protectorate from 1881, indep. and mem. UN 1956, rep. 1957. Ethnic groups: larhely Arab; Berber minority in the mountains; Negroes in the S; perhaps ca. 250,000 Eur., mostly RC Official language: Arab.; Fr. is widely use. Official religion: Islam (over 95%). Others include RC, Jewish, Gk. Orthodox. R. Lully* was pioneer miss. to Muslim of Tunis. The London-based Ch. Missions to Jews (see London Jews' Society) began work 1832, the North africa Miss. in the 1880s, Am. Meths. in the 1st decade of the 20th c.

3. Dem. and Popular Rep. of Algeria. Area: ca. 919,600 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 20,100,000. Settled by Phoenicians ca. 1200 BC, subsequently ruled by Carthage, Rome, Vandals, Arabs, Turks (the latter ca. 1518), Fr. 1830; indep. rep. and mem. UN 1962. Ethnic composition: mostly Arab-Berber stock; perhaps ca. 1,200,000 Europeans, mostly RC The North* Africa Mission began work 1881. Others include Am. Meths. ca. 1908/10; BFBS (whole Bible in Kabyle); Algiers Mission Band; London Soc. for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews; Fr. Ev. Missions to the Kabyles; Ev. Bap. Missions. The Luth. Dan. Israel Miss. began work among Jews in Algiers.

4. Kingdom of Morocco. Area: ca. 171,200 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 22,300,000. Once under Carthage, Morocco came under Roman rule as Mauretania, then was variously invaded until conquered by Arabs ca. 680/683; indep. kingdom 788; broke into several tribal states by the 10th c.; the states came to be united under a Berber Muslim dynasty; torn bet. Port., Sp., and Eng. 15th–17th cents.; became one of Barbary States, know for piracy; Fr. Morocco and Sp. Morocco est. 1912; indep. kingdom and mem. UN 1956. Ifni (Gueder on old maps), ceded to Sp. 1860/61, was returned to Morocco 1969. Ethnic composition: most of Arab descent; ca. 35% of Berber origin; perhaps several hundred thousand Europeans; Jews; Negroes brought in from Sudan as slaves. Official language: Arab.; Berber and Fr. are widely used. State religion: Islam (ca. 98%); small minorities of Christians and Jews.

The London-based Ch. Missions to Jews (see London Jews' Society) was the first soc. in Morocco (1875). The North* Africa Mission (1882), The Southern Morocco Miss. (1888/89), and the Gospel Missionary Union grew to be the largest socs. in Morocco. Others include Mildmay Miss. to the Jews 1889; Christian Missions in Many Lands; Bible Churchmen's Missionary Soc.; Gospel Missionary Union 1895; Light of Afr. Miss. A radio station, Voice of Tangier, broadcast from Tangier till private broadcasting was forbidden December 31, 1959; it was relocated 1960 as Trans World Radio at Monte Carlo, Monaco.

5. Canary Islands. Area: ca. 2,808 sq. mi. Pop. (1981 est.): 1,494,788. Ca. 820 mi. SW of Sp. and ca. 60 mi. W of Afr. Known of old as Fortunate Isles; contacted and claimed by Port. 1341 but awarded to Castile by pope 1344; divided into 2 provinces of Sp. (Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas) 1927. Ethnic composition: practically all of Sp. descent. Religion: RCm predominates. Others include Worldwide Evangelization Crusade.

6. Rio de Oro. Area: figures vary from 71,042 to 73,362 sq. mi. Pop. (1970): perhaps ca. 7,500 settled inhabitants; nomadic tribesmen variously est. from 6,500 to 25,000. Zone in what was Sp. Sahara (or Western Sahara) until 1976; sometimes the name was used for all of Sp. Sahara with its total pop. of perhaps ca. 55,000 to 60,000. Occupied by Sp. 1476, annexed, 1887; the Sp. Sahara became a Sp. province 1958; Sp. withdrew 1976; claims by Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria led to division bet. Mauritania and Morocco; Mauritania gave up its claim 1979; Morocco occupied the whole territory. Ethnic composition: Moors, Arabs, and Berbers, mostly with a mixture of Negro stock. Religion: Islam predominates. No Christian missions.

7. Luth. work in Afr. began 1585, when Duke Ludwig* von Württemberg sent an embassy to Fezzan, N. Afr., with miss. work as part of its assignment.

E. East Africa.

1. Dem. Rep. of the Sudan. Area: ca. 966,800 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 19,900,000. Ancient Cush and Nubia are included in this territory. Anciently under Egyptian influence, N Sudan came under Libyan rule (8th c. BC—4th c. AD). Christian states later came into existence in the area. Soba, near Khartoum, was taken 1504 by Muslim from the Abyssinian border, who succumbed to Egypt 1821; local forces that came into power in the 1880s fell to Anglo-Egyptian troops 1896/98; known as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1898–1988; indep. rep. and mem. UN 1956. Ethnic groups: in the N ca. 70% Arab and Nubian (of mixed Arab and Negro blood); in the S ca. 23% Afr. (Nilotic and Negro); less than 3% non-Sudanese. Official language: Arab., native language of ca. half the people; ca. 30/32 Sudanic and Hamitic languages (divided into many more dialects) are spoken in the south. Religion: predominantly Muslim in the N, animist in the south. The constitution guarantees freedom of religion and conscience, but missionaries have been restricted. The BFBS did pioneer work in the Khartoum region in the 1860s. The CMS opened a station at Omdurman 1899, began work 1906 among southern tribes, where tens of thousands embraced Christianity as a result of emphasis on evangelism through educ. and indigenous chs. National pastors are trained at the Bishop Gwynne College. The United Presb. Ch. of N. Am. est. a miss. in North Sudan at Khartoum 1900, in South Sudan at Doleib Hill 1902; it became known in South Sudan as the Upper Nile Mission, and its ch. there, est. 1956, came to be known as Ch. of Christ in the Upper Nile. The Sudan* United Miss. began work 1907. Others include Sudan* Interior Miss. 1936; africa Inland Miss. 1949.

2. Socialist Ethiopia (Abyssinia). Area: ca. 472,400 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 30,500,000. Early Ethiopian kingdoms descended from Hamitic and semitic tribes. Arab invasions and feudal strife led to disruption; a measure of unity and independence was achieved by ca. 1896; mem. UN 1945. The royal line claimed descent from solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who, according to legend, was the Ethiopian Queen Makeda of Aksum. A provisional military govt. took over 1974. The monarchy was abolished 1975. Ethiopia became a Socialist State. Ethnic groups: ca. a third of semitic origin (Amharas and Tigreans); ca. 40% Hamitic (Gallas); many mixed, Negroid, and other groups, including Falasha,* Somalis, Yemenite Arabs, and perhaps ca. 30,000 Eur. (mainly It.). Official and predominant language: Amharic; Eng. and Arab. are used by many; other languages include Galla and Italian. Religion: ca. one third to one half Christian; ca. one third Islam; ca. one sixth animist; the rest Falasha and others. The country was divided into “Ethiopian Ch. areas” and “open areas,” with miss. work allowed only in the latter. P. Heyling* began work 1634. The CMS began work 1830 (see also Gobat, Samuel; Krapf, Johann Ludwig). The London Soc. for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (see London Jews' Society) began work among the Falasha ca. 1855/60; efforts by the Ch. of Scot. soon followed. The United Presb. Ch. of N. Am. began work 1920, the Sudan* Interior Miss. 1927. Others include Bible Churchmen's Missionary Soc. 1934; Eastern Mennonite Bd. of Missions and Charities; Bap. Gen. Conf.; Fin. Pent. Miss.; Christian Missions in Many Lands; Red Sea Mission Team.

The Swed. Luth. Evangeliska Fosterlandsstiftelsen, which had worked in Eritrea, began work at Addis Ababa 1904 and extended it to the Gallas 1923, to which the miss. had sent pupils from Eritrea 1877 and where the Ethiopian Onesimus had done pioneer work. The Swed. soc. Bibeltrogna Venner began work in various parts of Ethiopia 1911, the Ger. Hermannsburg Miss., 1927. (among the Gallas). Others: include The Dan. Ethiopian Miss.; Norw. Luth. Miss.; ALC The LWF radio station at Addis Ababa was formally inaugurated February 26, 1963.

Eritrea was the site of the kingdom of Aksum, which originated from a kingdom in Southern Arabia in the 1st millennium BC and fl. from the 4th to the 5th or 6th c. AD; largely indep. till it came under Ottoman rule in the 16th c.; disputed among Ethiopia, the Ottomans, the kingdom of Tigre, Egypt, and Italy from the 17th to the 19th c.; It. colony and named Eritrea (after the Mare Erythraeum [Red Sea] of the Romans) 1890; became one of the 6 provinces of It. Wast Afr.; under Brit. administration 1941; federated as autonomous unit to Ethiopia 1952; province within Ethiopia 1962. The Swed. Luth. Evangeliska Fosterlandsstiftelsen began work among the Kunama tribe 1866. Others include Ortho dox Presb. Ch.; Evangelistic Faith Missions; Sudan Interior Mission; Middle East Gen. Mission; Red Sea Mission Team.

See also Ethiopic Church; Ministry, Education of, XI A.

3. Rep. of Djibouti. Area: ca. 9,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 500,000. Acquired by Fr. bet. 1843 and 1846 by treaties with Somali Sultans. Territory in Fr. Community. Name changed 1967 from Fr. Somaliland to Fr. Territory of the Afars and the Issas. Capital: Djibouti. Indep. 1977 as Rep. of Djibouti. Ethnic groups; Afars (or Danakils), Somalis of the Issa and Ishaak tribes, perhaps 10,000 Eur. (mostly Fr.), and a smaller number of Arabs. Languages: Somali, Afar, Fr. Arabic. RC work is mostly among Europeans; little Prot. work.

4. Somali Dem. Rep.; (Somalia). Area: ca. 246,300 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 4,600,000. The It. Protectorate of Somalia was proclaimed a protectorate by It. 1889; Brit. Somaliland was formed in the 19th c.; the 2 united as the indep. Somali Rep. and joined UN 1960; after a bloodless army coup 1969 the nation was renamed Somali Dem. Republic. Ethnic groups: mainly Somali, Galla, and Danakil; perhaps ca. 35,000 Arabs, 1,000 Indians and Pakistanis, ca. 2,000 It. Official written languages: Arab., It., Eng.; Somali, the nat. language, has no gen. accepted written form. State religion: Islam; most are Sunni Muslim; a small no. of RCs and Prots. live mainly in Mogadisho. Christianity was probably introduced in the 4th c.; Islam became dominant in the 9th c. The Swed. Luth. Evangeliska Fosterlandsstiftelsen began work 1875 but its workers were expelled by Italians in the 1930s and its mission taken over by RCs Others include Eastern Mennonite Bd. of Missions and Charities 1952; Sudan Interior Mission 1954.

5. Rep. of Kenya. Area: ca. 224,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 17,900,000. Brit. est. a protectorate in the area in the 1890s; indep. and mem. UN 1963; rep. within the Brit. Comm. 1964. Ethnic groups: ca. 97% Africans, including ca. 40 main tribes divided into 4 major linguistic and cultural groups (Bantu, Nilo-Hamitic, Nilotic, Hamitic); ca. 3% Asians (esp. Indians), Europeans, Arabs; some Pygmies. More than half are animist, ca. a third Christian, the rest Muslim or Hindu. The Mau Mau movement (pol., religious, antiwhite) spread violence in the 1950s. J. L. Krapf* began work 1844 for the CMS at Mombasa, was joined by J. Rebmann* 1846. The United Meth. Free Chs. (Brit.) began 1862. The miss. begun 1891 by the East Africa Scottish Mission was transferred to the Ch. of Scot. at the beginning of the 20th c. P. C. Scott* and others began work for the Africa Inland Miss. 1895. Others include Pent. Assemblies of Can.; Presb. Ch. of E. Afr.; Salv. Army; Ch. of God; World Gospel Miss. (Nat. Holiness Assoc.); Bible Churchmen's Miss. Soc.; Elim Miss. Soc.; Pentecostal Chs. of Norw.; Gospel Furthering Fellowship; Indep. Bd. for Presb. For. Missions, Inc. Luth. work is carried on by the Swed. Bibeltrogna Venner.

6. United Rep. of Tanzania. Area: ca. 364,900 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 19,900,000. Formed 1964 by union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; first called United Rep. of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; present name adopted October 1964; mem. Brit. Comm.

Tanganyika was colonized by Arabs and Persians in the 8th c. AD Port. influence began 1498. In the 17th c. the Sultan of Oman gained control. Tanganyika formed the bulk of the colony of Ger. East Afr. 1885; administered after WW I by Brit.; indep. and mem. UN 1961. Zanzibar was also under early Arab influence; Port. tributary 1503; Oman Arabs gained control 1698/1710; indep. 1861; Brit. protectorate 1890; indep. and mem. UN 1963.

Ethnic groups: ca. 99% Afr., including ca. 120 tribes, mostly Bantu; ca. 1% others, including Eur., Arab, and Into-Pakistani. Official languages: Eng. and Swahili; ca. 120 dialects are also spoken. Religion: ca. 30–31% Muslim, ca. 25% Christian, the rest mostly animist.

The Universities' Miss. to Cen. Afr. (Angl.) began in Tanganyika 1860, joined in the 1870s by the CMS Others: Moravians (work begun 1860 by the LMS); Afr. Inland Miss.; Assem. of God; Seventh-day Adv.; Salv. Army; Mennonites; Christian Miss. in Many Lands; Gospel Furthering Fellowship; S. Baps.

Under Ger. control, slave traffic was abolished, and a number of Luth. socs. began work. The Bethel Miss. began work at Dar-es-Salaam 1887, the Berlin Miss. in the Lake Nyasa region 1891; the Leipzig Miss. took over the work of the CMS in the Kilimanjaro area 1893. The Bethel Miss. began work in the Bukoba region 1910. During and after WW I, Ger. missionaries were expelled, and part of the ch. work was taken over by Scot. Presbs., South Afr. Meths., and Eng. Brethren. Under Brit. rule, the Luth. work in the Kilimanjaro region was given 1921–22 to the Augustana Synod. Ger. missionaries were allowed to return after 1925. In 1939 the Swedes opened missions in the southern highlands. They were later joined by the Fin. Miss. Soc. and Dan. Miss. The Norw. Miss. developed work in the north-cen. area. In 1963 seven Luth. chs. united to form the Ev. Luth. Ch. in Tanganyika.

See also Ministry, Education of, XI A 15.

7. Arab Rep. of Egypt. Area: ca. 385,200 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 44,000,000 Ruled by dynasties from ca. 3200 BC; conquered by Persia 525 BC and by Alexander III (the Great; 356–323 BC; king of Macedonia 336) 332 BC; Roman province 30 BC; ruled by Arabs 641–1517 AD; part of Ottoman Empire 1517–1798; occupied by Fr. forces 1798–1801; Brit. and Turks drove out the Fr. in the early 1800s, and Egypt came to be ruled by pashas as part of the Ottoman Empire; under dominant Brit. influence from 1882; Brit. protectorate 1914–22, then indep.; army forced King Faruk I to abdicate 1952; Egypt became a rep. 1953. The United Arab Rep. was formed February 1, 1958, by Egypt and Syria, with Yemen as a federated mem. Syria withdrew September 30, 1961, Yemen December 26, 1961. Egypt kept the name United Arab Rep. till 1971, when a Fed. (or Confederation) of Arab Reps. was formed by Egypt, Libya, and Syria; but by Aug. 1974 the fed. was no longer operative.

The pop. consists mainly of arabs of Hamitic and Semitic origin, Fellahin, descended from ancient Egyptians, and Nubians, a Mixed group; others include Armenians, Turks, Assyrians, and Europeans. Official and national language: Arabic. Islam* is the state religion; ca. 92% of the pop. is Sunni Muslim; ca. 7% Coptic (see Coptic Church); the rest include RCs, Orthodox, other Christians, and Jews.

Christianity probably came to Egypt in the 1st c. BFBS missionaries entered 1818. CMS work began 1825 in hope of cooperation with the Coptic Ch. but was given up 1862–82; key missionary in developing CMS work int he early 20th c.: W. H. Temple Gairdner.* The North* Africa Miss. began work 1892. The United Presb. Miss. (also called Am. Miss.), built on work begun 1854 by the Assoc. Rep. Syn. of the W (see Associate Reformed Church), won many converts among Copts; from it grew the Coptic Ev. Ch. in the Nile Valley, which became autonomous 1958.

The Egypt Gen. Miss. (originally Egypt Mission Band) began work 1898. After Egypt seized the Suez 1956 the name Egypt Gen. Miss. was changed to Middle* East Gen. Miss.; its Brit. workers were transferred to Lebanon, then to Eritrea; the Nile Mission Press (also called Arabic Christian Publishers), a related venture, moved to Beirut, Lebanon, 1957. The US Council of the miss. continued work with non-Brit. Missionaries under the name Egypt Gen. Miss.; use of this name continued also after the miss. merged with Unevangelized* Fields Mission at the end of 1964.

The Egypt Inter-Mission Council, formed 1921 by 14 for. miss. socs., ceased activity 1956 except for some welfare work. The Near* East Council of Chs., founded 1927 as Near East Christian Council for Western Asia and Northern Africa, has been active in Egypt.

Eur. Luths. began pastoral, hosp., and miss. work chiefly in Alexandria and Cairo in the late 1850s.

Others include Baps. and Assemblies of God. EL

See also Sudan Pioneer Mission.

F. Central Africa.

1. Rep. of Uganda. Area: ca. 91,100 sq. mi. Pop.: (1982 est.): 13,700,000. Brit. protectorate 1894; indep.; 962; rep. 1963; mem. UN and Brit. Comm., both 1962. Ethnic groups: ca. 98% Afr. (Bantu, Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic); ca. 14% Asians (esp. Indians); ca. 10,000 Europeans. Official language: Eng.; main local language: Ganda. Religion: ca. 50% Christian, ca. 44% animist, ca. 6% Muslim. H. M. stanley* made the acquaintance of king Mtesa, who professed Christianity and asked for missionaries (see also A 6). A. M. Mackay* and 7 others were sent by the CMS 1876; Mackay reached Uganda 1878; A. R. Tucker* was sent by the CMS in the early 1890s. Others include Africa Inland Mission; Bible Churchmen's Missionary Soc.; Seventh-day Adv.

2. Rep. of Zaïre. Name changed May 1997 to Dem. Rep. of the Congo. Area: ca., 905,000 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 30,300,000. In 1884 the Congo Free State was set up under the Belg. king as absolute monarch; Belg. colony (called Belg. Congo) 1908; indep. 1960 as Dem. Rep. of the Congo; mem. UN 1960; name changed 1971 to Rep. of Zaïre, after the 15th-c. Port. name for the Nzadi (Congo) R.; inhabitants called Zaïrois; all inhabitants were required in the early 1970s to shed their Christian names. Long “slave pen” of Afr. W coast. Capital: Kinshasa (formerly Leopoldville). Ca. 200 ethnic groups; 3 main groups: Negroes (Bantu, Sudanese, Nilotics), Hamites, Pygmies. Official and only common language: Fr.; ca. 200 other languages and dialects, including Lingala, Kingwana, Kongo, Luba. Religion: ca. 50% Christian (mainly RC); some of the nest, esp. the ##buti (or Bambuti), follow traditional religions, esp. animism. H. M. Stanley* descended the Congo to its mouth and wrote Challenge to Christendom. As a result, the Livingstone Inland Miss. opened a station at Palabala 1878, transferred its work to the Am. Bap. Miss. Union (Am. Bap. For. Miss. Soc.). in the 1880s. The Bap. Miss. Soc. began 1879 at Banza Manteke. F. S. Arnot* est. the Garenganze Ev. Miss. 1889. The Christian and Miss. Alliance est. work 1884 in the western pocket. The S. Presb. began a miss. at Luebo 1891. The Disciples of Christ entered 1899. Am. Meths. entered 1885 but did not become permanently est. till 1914. Others include the Congo Balolo Miss.

The Swed. Missionsförbundet originally assoc. its work with Livingstone Inland Miss., later extended it to the lower Congo. Ca. 50 or more Prot. socs. have undertaken work.

Pioneer RC miss.: Miss. du Saint Esprit; Belgian Miss.; New Miss. at Bangola (Jesuit); Miss. of the Peres D'Algerie.

3. Cen. African Republic. Area: ca. 240,300 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 2,400,000. Under Fr. influence since 1889; area bet. Ubangi and Shari rivers constituted 1894 as a Fr. territory; given administrative structure 1900; united with Chad 1905/06 to form Ubangi-Shari-Chad Colony (see also F 6); part of Fr. Equatorial Afr. 1910; Chad detached 1920; Cen. Afr. Rep. proclaimed 1958 as autonomous state in the Fr. Community; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960; became Central Afr. Empire 1977; reverted to Central Afr. Rep. 1979. Ca. 80 ethnic groups, including Banda, Mandjia-Baya, Ubangi; ca. 6,000 Eur. (mostly Fr.). Official language: Fr.; main spoken language: Sangho. Religion: ca. 60% animist, 35% Christian (mainly Prot.), 5% Muslim. The Brethren Ch., For. Missionary Soc. sent 4 missionaries who reached Brazzaville 1918, received premission to enter Unabgi-Shari 1921, est. their first center 1922; the Brethren Ch. est. a Central Bible Institute. Bap. Mid-Missions began 1920, Africa Inland Mission 1924. Others include the Swed. Bap. Mission.

4. People's Rep. of the Congo. Area: ca. 132,046 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 1,600,000. Explored by Fr. beginning in the 1870s. Brazzaville founded 1880 by explorer Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de Brazza (1852–1905). Boundaries bet. Fr. and Belg. Congos est. 1885. The colony of Fr. Congo est. 1891. Known as Middle Congo from 1903. Linked with Chad, Gabon, and Ubangi-Shari to form Fr. Equatorial Afr. 1910, with Brazzaville capital. Overseas territory of Fr. 1946. Autonomous rep. in the Fr. Community 1958; fully indep. mem. of the community 1960; mem. UN 1960. The Sevenska Missionsförbundet est. extensive work in the southern part of the country. United World Mission, Inc., began work in the 1940s.

5. Gabonese Republic. Area: ca. 103,300 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 700,000. Under Fr. influence and control from 1839. Fr. colony of Gabon est. 1885. Helped form Fr. Equatorial Afr. 1910 (see F 4). Autonomous rep. in the Fr. Community 1958. Fully indep. from Fr. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: mostly of Bantu origin; tribes: ca. 32% Fang, 19% Eshira, 12% Adouma, 5% Okande, 32% other. Official language: French. Religion: ca. 46–50% Christian (mainly RC); ca. 3,000 Muslim; the rest animists. RCs began work 1844. Prot. miss.: ABCFM 1842; Am. Presb. 1850; Paris Ev. Miss. Soc. 1892; Christian and Miss. Alliance, 1934. In 1913 A Schweitzer* came to Gabon and est. a hosp. at Lambaréné.

6. Rep. of Chad. Area: ca. 495,800 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 4,600,000. Fr. influence and control began in the 1890s; united 1905/06 with Ubangi-Shari to form Ubangi-Shari-Chad Colony (see F 4); detached from Ubangi-Shari 1920 and put under Fr. civil administration; autonomous. state in Fr. Community; fully indep. and mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: ca. 50% of predominantly Sudanic origin (in N and E), 50% Bantu (in S); ca. 5,000 Eur., mostly Fr. Official language: Fr.; an Arabic dialect in N and cen. Chad; tribal languages in the south. Religion: more than 50% Muslim, 40% animist, 5% Christian. Bap. Mid-Missions began 1925 at Fort Archambault, Christian Missions in Many Lands at Fort Lamy 1925, the Sudan United Miss. in the 1920s. Other Prots have included the Am. Luth. Brethren. RCs began 1929.

7. United Rep. of Cameroon (Fr.: Cameroun). Area: ca. 179,600 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 8,900,000. Ger Protectorate 1884 till WW I; the League of Nations gave ca. 80% to Fr., ca. 20% to Brit. In 1960 Fr. Cameroon became indep. Cameroon Rep. In 1961 the Brit. (or western) section (except a small northern region that joined Nigeria) joined the Fr. (or eastern) section (Rep. of Cameroon) to form the Federal Rep. of Cameroon. In 1972 a change was effected from a federal to a unitary state called United Rep. of Cameroon. Mem. UN 1960. Ethnic groups: perhaps ca. 200 tribal groups (Bantu and semi-Bantu, sudanese, Arabs, and Pygmies). Official languages: Eng. (West Cameroon), Fr. (East Cameroon); 24 major Afr. languages are spoken. Religion: ca. 33% Christian (mainly in the south), 15% Muslim (mainly in the north), the rest animist. The Bap. Missionary Soc. began work 1841, reduced languages to writing, translated the Bible. Its outstanding miss. was A. Saker.* The Presb. Ch. in the U. S. (A.) extended its work into Cameroon in the 1880s, organized the Presb. Ch. of Cameroon 1957. The Ger. Baps., who began 1890/91, turned their miss. over to the Am. Bap. Gen. Miss. Soc. 1935. The Sudan United Miss. began work 1911. Others include the Ref. Ev. Ch. (Fr.), Seventh-day Adv., and RCs.

When Ger. assumed control of the Missions 1887, the Bap. Miss. Soc. missions were given to the Basel Ev. Mission Soc. After WW I the miss. was given to the Paris Ev. Missionary Soc. and ultimately became a part of the Presb. Ch. in Cameroon. The Luth. Brethren began work from Garoua to Lake Chad 1920. In 1923 an indep. Am. Luth. miss. began work that was later taken over by The ELC In 1925 the Norw. Missionary Soc. est. a miss. in the Ngaoundere area. These last three began to measurable cooperation 1945. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of the Cameroun and the Cen. African Rep. began its first yr. of constitutional life 1961. It est. a sem. at Meiganga.

See also Kamerun; Ministry, Education of, XI A.

8. Rep. of Burundi. Area: ca. 10,750 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 4,400,000. populated first by pygmy Twa, then by Bantu, who were subjugated by Watusi (probably from Ethiopia) in the 15th or 16th c. Became part of Ger. East Afr. 1898/99; occupied by Belg. forces 1916; after WW I became, with Rwanda, the Belg. mandated territory of Ruanda-Urundi, which was united administratively with the Belg. Congo 1925–60 (UN trust territory 1946), divided 1962, when Burundi became an indep. kingdom and mem. UN; monarchy abolished and rep. proclaimed 1966. Ethnic composition: ca. 85% of Bantu origin, 14% Watusi, 1% Twa. Official languages: Rundi (a Bantu tongue) and Fr.; Swahili is spoken in trading centers. Religion: up to 50/51% RC; 4–10% Prot.; ca. 25,000 Muslim; the rest animist.

First RC contact 1879; first permanent RC post 1898. Main Prot. thrust began after WW I; includes Pent., Angl. (CMS), Dan. Baps., Free Meths., Seventh-day Adv., Amish, and World gospel Mission (an agency connected with the National* Holiness Assoc.).

9. Rep. of Rwanda (formerly Ruanda). Area: 10,169 sq. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 5,400,000. Populated first by pygmy Twa, then by Bantu, who were subjugated by Watusi (probably from Ethiopia) in the 15th or 16th c.; contacted by Eur. explorers 1854; taken over by Ger. 1885; became part of Ger. East Afr. 1898/99; occupied by Belg. troops 1916; after WW I became, with Burundi, the Belg. mandated territory of Ruanda-Urundi, which was united administratively with the Belg. Congo 1925–60 (UN trust territory 1946), divided 1962, when Rwanda became indep.; the monarchy had been overthrown and a rep. proclaimed in Rwanda 1961; mem. UN 1962. Ethnic composition: ca. 84% Bantu, ca. 15% Watusi, the rest Twa pygmies and some Eur. and Asians. Official languages: Rwanda and Fr.; Kiswahili spoken in commercial centers. Religion: perhaps ca. 53/60% Christian (mostly RC), 35/40% animist, and 1% Muslim.

RC work began 1900, Bethel Mission (based at Bethel, near Bielefeld, Ger.) 1907, the Ruanda Mission (formerly known as Ruanda Gen. and Med. Miss. of the CMS) 1921, the Mission Protestante de Belgique (Prot. Miss. of Belg.) 1921. Others include Seventh-day Adv., Svenska Fria Missionen (Swedish Free Mission; Pent.), Det Danske Baptistamfunds Ydremission (Dan. Bap. For Mission), and Eglise Libre Méthodiste (Free Meth. Ch.). EL (sections under Nigeria and Ghana by HM and KK); rev. and expanded by LP

See also Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America; Ethiopianism.

See Missions Bibliography.

African Methodist Episcopal Church.

Began when African-America under leadership of Richard Allen,* Wm. White, and Absalom Jones withdrew from St. George Ch., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 1787 because of attempted racial segregation. In 1816 the African-Americans organized the A. M. E. Ch. as an indep. body. The ch. has a university, est. 1856, at Wilberforce, near Xenia, Ohio. See also Ethiopianism; Methodist Churches, 4 c.

African Orthodox Church, The.

Traces its beginning to 1919, when George Alexander McGuire, a Prot. Episc. rector, withdrew from the Protestant* Episc. Ch. to est. what he called Indep. Episc. chs.; name changed 1921 in NYC to Afr. Orthodox Ch.; McGuire assoc as chaplain with M. M. Garvey* Jr. in the Universal* Negro Improvement Association. Reflects High* Ch. Anglicanism.


(Africaner). Warlike Hottentot* chief in Namaqualand* welcomed C. Albrecht* (d. 1815) into his country; enraged by impudence of Christians, he destroyed mission at Warm Bath; later converted; miss. companion of R. Moffat.*

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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