(170060). Founder of reorganized Moravian Ch. or Unity of Brethren; b. Dresden, Ger.; grew up in Pietistic surroundings; to school in Halle; stud. law at Wittenberg; made friends with Cath. and Ref. notables on his travels; purchased Berthelsdorf, where he wished to build up a community of heart-and-soul Christians; settled body of Moravians on part of his estate (beginning 1722), colony being called Herrnhut (the Lord's Watch); expelled from Saxony; made Moravian bishop in Berlin 1737; traveled extensively in Eur. and Am., establishing Moravian colonies (e.g., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741); lived in London 175155, where he influenced Methodism; passed his latter days in somewhat depressing circumstances at Herrnhut. Wrote strongly subjective hymns, e.g., Jesus, Thy Blood and Righteousness (see Wesley, John). See also David, Christian; Moravian Church, 3, 4.
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