A few ancient ch. orders have either remained practically unchanged to the present time or have influenced present orders to a great extent.
1. The liturgy of the Roman Ch. was established in the basic features of its present form by Gregory the Great (590604; see Popes, 4). Not only did the Roman rite, as fixed by him, tend to emphasize the difference bet. Rome and Constantinople, but it also brought out the sacerdotal idea as it gained ground in the West under the influence of Gregory. In spite of Gregory's conservative position, the Roman rite began to supersede other rites which had been in use in the West. In the Ger. Empire, which at that time included Gaul, Pepin* and Charlemagne* virtually succeeded in abolishing the Gallican Liturgy, the Roman Ordinary of the Mass being introduced by force.
2. In Eng. the Council of Clovesho prescribed the Roman rite for the entire country 747, although it never fully succeeded in replacing the ancient forms.
3. In Ireland the syns. of Tara 692, of Kells 1152, and of Cashel 1172 passed resolutions favoring the Roman rite alone.
4. In Sp. the Syn. of Burgos 1085 declared the Roman Liturgy valid for the entire country. Thus by the 12th c. the Roman forms had superseded or supplanted the rites previously in use in Sp., Fr., Ger., Eng., Scot., Ireland, and It., with the exception of the archbishopric of Milan and individual dioceses at Seville, Toledo, Salamanca, and Valladolid, in Sp..
5. There was a revision of the Roman Liturgy in the 16th c., the Breviary of Quignon appearing 1539 and the Breviary of Pius V (see Popes, 21) 1568. Since these efforts, however, did not meet with general satisfaction, Clement VIII issued a new Roman service book 1604 which was finally revised under Urban VIII and appeared 1634. It may be said to be a recast of the Gregorian Liturgy, the framework and much of the liturgical material having been retained.
6. The order of service in the celebration of Mass in the Roman Ch. at present contains the following parts: the solemn beginning of Mass, with the Introibo (Ps 43) and the Gloria Patri; the Confiteor, or confession of sins by the priest; the Introit of the day with the Gloria Petri; the Kyrie, followed by the Gloria in Excelsis; the Collect, introduced with the Salutation and Response; the reading of the Epistle; the Gradual, or Hallelujah; the Gospel, preceded by the Benediction and Salutation, with Response by the priest's assistants; the Nicene Creed; the Offertory, or the Oblation, with the Invocation and the Lavabo; the Preface, including everything from the Salutation to the Sanctus; the Canon of the Mass, including the offering of the unbloody sacrifice, the Consecration, the Elevation and Adoration, and the Commemoration for the living and the dead; the preparation for Communion; the prayers preceding the Distribution (Agnus Dei and several collects); the Distribution, the priest first taking bread and wine himself and then administering the bread, if there are communicants; the Communion Psalm, the Postcommunion; the end of the Mass; the Benediction.
7. The liturgy of the Ch. of Eng. and also of the Prot. Episc. Ch. in Am. was derived from Ephesine or Gallican sources, reaching Eng. in the last part of the 2d c. or in the 3d c. by way of Lyons. It was afterward modified by Augustine* of Canterbury and Theodore* of Tarsus. A revision by Osmund of Salisbury (1087) resulted in a compromise bet. the Roman and the Gallican rite. The ancient Use of Salisbury was amended and rev. 1516, a 2d rev. being undertaken 1541. For further hist. see Book of Common Prayer.
8. The order of the chief service in the Angl. Ch. is the following: Lord's Prayer; Collect for Purity; Ten Commandments, with the response Kyrie; Collect of the day; Epistle, the cong. seated; Gospel, the cong. standing; Nicene Creed; announcements; Psalm; Sermon; sentences relating to offering; General Prayer; Exhortation and Invitation; Confession and Absolution; Comfortable Words; the Communion service.
9. In the liturgy of the Ref. chs. in Am. the sacrificial idea preponderates. In most denoms. a number of hymns, alternating with prayers and readings, precede the sermon, and the services close with prayer and benediction. Great emphasis is placed on the prayers in public worship, and the hymns and music are usually made an outstanding feature of the services. There is also a certain tendency to make the services more beautiful by introducing liturgical material, though the execution of liturgical parts is commonly left to a choir. See also Worship, Parts of.
10. The order of worship in the Luth. chs. of Am. is based largely on the work of Luther, whose Formula missae 1523 and Deutsche Messe 1526 exerted a wide influence. An abbreviated form of the Saxon and Prussian orders was used in many Ger. congs..
11. The chief parochial service of the Ch. of the Augsburg Conf. is the Holy Communion (AC XXIV 34; Ap XXIV 1). It is the historic rite of the Western Ch. in the language of the people. The invariable framework of the service (Ordinary) gives a cath. and evangelical direction to the devotion of the worshiper. The Propers, which change from Sunday to Sunday, from week to week, from holiday to holiday, enable the worshiper to live in the regular rhythm of the ch. yr..
12. In the LCMS the Holy Communion may be divided into 2 parts: the liturgy of the Word and the liturgy of the Sacrament. The 1st part consists of (a) Introit, Kyrie, Gloria in Excelsis, Salutation, Collect; (b) Epistle and Holy Gospel; (c) Creed, Sermon, Hymn. The 2d part consists of (a) Salutation, Preface, Sanctus, Exhortation; (b) Lord's Prayer, Consecration, Distribution; (c) Post-Communion. A more detailed division of the service is the following: I. The Service of Preparation: Invocation, Confession, Absolution. II. The Liturgy of the Word: (a) Introit, Kyrie, Gloria in Excelsis, Salutation, Collect; (b) Epistle, Gradual and Hallelujah, Holy Gospel, Nicene Creed; (c) Hymn, Sermon. III. The Litury of the Sacrament: (a) Offertory, Prayer of the Ch.; (b) Salutation, Preface, Sursum Corda, Gratias Agimus, Dignum, Sanctus and Hosanna; (c) Lord's Prayer, Words of Institution, Pax Domini, Agnus Dei; (d) Distribution. IV. The Post-Communion: Nunc Dimittis, Versicle, Collects, Benedicamus, Benediction.
13. In addition to the above liturgy, which may be found in The Lutheran Hymnal, p. 15 (Conc. Pub. House, 1941), there are 3 alternate services suggested for cong. use and printed in the Worship Supplement (Conc. Pub. House, 1969). The 1st service is similar to the structure outlined above but provides a new musical setting for the liturgy. The Service of the Word is composed of Entrance Song, Lord Have Mercy, Glory and Praise, Salutation, Collect, Lesson, Gradual, Epistle, Holy Gospel, Sermon, Creed. The Service of the Sacrament is composed of Offering and Offertory, Intercessions, Preface, Holy Holy Holy, Prayer of Thanksgiving, Our Father, Greeting of Peace, Lamb of God, Distribution, Thanksgiving, Collect, and Benediction. This liturgy follows closely the sequence of the new RC Mass, especially in regard to the placement of the sermon immediately after the reading of the Holy Gospel.
14. The 2d service follows an order of worship used in St. Mark's in the Bowery Ch., NYC. The service is divided into 3 main parts: The Preparation, The Service of the Word, and The Meal. The Service of the Word includes Lessons, Sermon, and Intercessions. The Meal follows the 4-fold action of the Eucharist as outlined by Gregory Dix: Taking, Blessing, Breaking, and Sharing.
15. The 3d service is based on the so-called Dutch Canon. This order is divided into the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. The Liturgy of the Word includes Opening, Confession, Glory in the Highest, Prayer for the Day, Readings, Homily, Intercessory Prayers. The Liturgy of the Eucharist includes Prayer for Peace and Unity, Offertory, Invitation, Thanksgiving, Communion, and Dismissal.
16. There is also a Service of Holy Communion prepared by the Inter-Luth. Commission on Worship for provisional use. This order is printed in Contemporary Worship Services, The Holy Communion (Augsburg Pub. House, Bd. of Pub.Luth. Ch. in Am., and Conc. Pub. House, 1970). The order of the liturgy is as follows: Entrance Hymn; The Liturgy of the Word: First Lesson, Second Lesson, Holy Gospel, Sermon, Hymn of the Day or Creed, Act of Reconciliation, the Intercessions; The Liturgy of the Eucharistic Meal, which includes all the traditional elements as found in the Order of Holy Communion, The Luth. Hymnal (p. 15); however, in order to emphasize the unity of the Eucharistic action, the various parts are not titled or distinguished.
17. The orders for the Holy Communion found in The Luth. Hymnal (p. 15), the Worship Supplement, and the Inter-Luth.. Commission on Worship booklet are all based on the structure of the worship service employed by the early ch.. They follow the historic 2-part division of the service: the Mass of the Catechumens and the Mass of the Faithful. JSD (1117)
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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