(from Lat. ultra montes, beyond the mountains, i. e., from the viewpoint of the N [e.g., Eng., Fr., Ger.]). 1. Policy of supporting papal authority and power over against Febronianism,* Gallicanism,* Jansenism,* Josephinism,* and later, secularism.* The term, originated in the 11th c., found its modern application to religious tensions beginning in the 17th c.
2. Basis for ultramontanism was laid in the Donation* of Constantine.
3. Est. of the Holy* Roman Empire led to complications and conflicts bet. emp. and pope Gregory VII (see Popes, 7), Innocent III (see Popes, 10), Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12) and other popes were virtual world rulers. But their claims continued to be challenged. Rise of modern states and the spirit of nationalism curtailed the pope's temporal power. RC claims to spiritual power led to the dogma of papal infallibility,* also under challenge.
See also Christian Church, History of the, III 12.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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