(Tolstoy; Lyev; Leo; Nikolayerich; other spellings; 18281910). B. Yasnaya Polyana, Tula Province, Russ.; army officer; fought in Crimean War (185456); then lived on family estate Yasnaya Polyana; renounced use of his wealth and lived as a peasant; excommunicated by Holy* Syn. 1901.
Began an intensive study of Christianity in the 1870s; rejected immortality, Christ's deity, and other Christian doctrines as well as organized religion; developed Tolstoyism, a kind of Christian naturalism, based on the Sermon on the Mount, emphasizing nonresistance to evil.
Works include The Christian Teaching; Meine Beichte; My Religion; What I Believe; The Kingdom of God Is Within You; What Is Religion?
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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