The term is used mainly in reference to 3 controversies: (1) That which began after the 1645 Colloquy of Thorn* (see Poland, 4; Reformed Confessions, D 3 c), involved G. Calixtus,* and ended with the latter's death 1656; Calixtus tried to unite Prots. with each other and with RCs. See also Dorsche, Johann Georg. (2) That which extended from the 1661 Colloquy of Cassel* to 1669, when an order (probably originating from Frederick* William of Brandenburg) to refrain from literary polemics was heeded. An interim of quiet followed till 1675. See also Gerhardt, Paul(us). (3) That which began 1675, when A. Calov(ius)* renewed the conflict, and ended with his death 1686.
Syncretistic notions of the 17th c. led to union movements in the 20th c.. See Union Movements, 816; Union and Unity Movements, Lutheran, in the United States.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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