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South America.

S continent, W hemisphere; 4th largest (after Asia, Afr., and N. Am.). Area: ca. 6,881,000 sq. mi. For current information see CIA World factbook. Political divisions: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Surinam (Dutch Guiana) is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Fr. Guiana is an overseas dept. of Fr. The Falkland Islands (Sp. name: Islas Malvinas) and dependencies, under Brit. control since 1833, were occupied for 74 days by Argentina 1982. For the Neth. Antilles see Caribbean Islands, C, E 7. See also Trinidad and Tobago.

1. Argentine Rep. (Argentina). Area: ca. 1,065,200 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from the 16th c.; indep. 1816. Official language: Spanish. RCm officially recognized in the const.; liberty provided for all religions; perhaps ca. 200,000 Prots. The Ger. Ev. La Plata Syn. (Luth.-Ref.) was est. 1899. The Iglesia Evangelica Luterana Unida began 1908 as a N. Am. miss. venture. Other Luth. chs. include Swed., Dan., Norw., and Fin.. See also 2; Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The, B 2; United Lutheran Church in America, The, III.

2. Tierra del Fuego, largest is. in the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, S tip of S. Am. Area: ca. 18,530 sq. mi.; ca. W half belongs to Chile, ca. E half to Argentina. The Angl. Ch. continued work after unsuccessful efforts by A. F. Gardiner* and by The S. Am. Miss. Soc.

3. Rep. of Bolivia. Surrounded by Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Peru. Area: ca. 424,165 sq. mi. Official language: Sp., spoken by perhaps ca. 40%. Under Sp. influence and control, as Upper Peru. from the 1530s; indep. 1825 and renamed after its liberator, Simón Bolívar (1783–1830). Official religion: RCm (perhaps ca. 95%); religious liberty extends to others. A Ger. Luth. cong. was est. 1923 in La Paz, the capital; related congs. were est. in the vicinity. The Iglesia Evangelica Luterana was est. 1938 by the World* Miss. Prayer League.

4. Federative Rep. of Brazil (22 states, 4 territories, 1 fed. dist.). Area: ca. 3,286,470 sq. mi. Under Port. influence and control from ca. 1500; indep. monarchy 1822; rep. 1889. Official language: portuguese. Religion: perhaps ca. 90–95% RC Luths. have been in Brazil at least since 1552. Huguenot efforts at colonization 1555–68 and Ref. work 1636–44 came to nought. A Ger. Luth. cong. was est. 1823. The Rio Grande do Sul Syn. was organized 1886, other syns. 1905, 1911, 1912; these 4 formed a fed. 1950 which became the Ev. Ch. of the Luth. Confession 1954. Swed. and Norw. Luth. pastors serve seamen. The World* Miss. Prayer League began work 1953. See also Anchieta, José de; Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The, B 1.

5. Rep. of Chile (narrow strip along S half of the W coast of S. Am.). Area: ca. 292,135 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from the 16th c.; indep. 1818; under congressional dictatorship 1891–1925. Official and prevailing language: Spanish. RCm dominant. Hundreds of Ger. Luth. families came to Chile ca. 1849–59; the 1st parish was organized 1863, the Ger. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Chile 1905. After unsuccessful efforts 1920 and 1932. LCMS est. permanent work 1952; LCMS Argentine Dist. includes Chile. See also 2.

6. Rep. of Colombia (NW SAm.). Area: ca. 440,830 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from ca. 1499; indep. 1819. Official and prevailing language: Spanish. State religion: RCm (perhaps ca. 96–99%); others tolerated. Indep. Luth. missionaries founded the Celmosa Miss. of Colombia 1936. The field was transferred to ELC/UELC 1946, to The ALC 1960. Iglesia Evangelica Luterana—Sinodo de Colombia was organized 1958. Luth. miss. work has also been done among Germans and Scandinavians.

7. Rep. of Ecuador (Pacific coast, NW S. Am.). Area: ca. 108,625 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from ca. 1532; indep. of Sp. 1822; then part of confederacy of Greater Colombia till 1830, when it became an indep. rep. Official and prevailing language: Spanish. RCm predominates. The World* Miss. Prayer League began work among Indians 1951. Luth. ch. work among Gers. and Scands. began 1953 by extension from Colombia.

8. Rep. of Paraguay (cen. S. Am.; surrounded by Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia). Area: ca. 157,047 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from the 16th c.; indep. 1811. Official language: Sp.; nearly all speak also Guarani. State religion: RCm (ca. 90%); others tolerated. Ger. Ev. work began 1893. LCMS began Ger. work 1935; its Argentine Dist. includes Paraguay.

9. Rep. of Peru (Pacific coast, NW S. Am., bet. Ecuador and Chile). Area: ca. 496,222 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from 1532; indep. 1824. Official language: Spanish. State religion: RCm; others tolerated. Ev. work among Gers. began ca. 1898, connected to the Prussian* Union 1905, est. legally as Iglesia Evangelica Luterana del Peru 1951. See also Acosta, José de.

10. Oriental Rep. of Uruguay (echoing Banda Oriental [“East Bank,” i. e., of the Uruguay and the Platal, the name under which it was inc. in the Sp. Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata 1776), smallest[ country of S. Am., on SE coast. Area; ca. 68,000 sq. mi. Settled by Sp. 1624; unsuccessfully challenged by Port. from the 1680s to the 1770s; indep. from Sp. 1811–14; conquered by Port. from Brazil; province of Brazil 1820–25; revolted 1825; indep. rep. 1828; administered by a 9-mem. Nat. Council 1951–66. Official and universal language: Spanish. Ch. and state are separate; RCm predominant. Ger. evangelical work began 1843 and was carried on intermittently. LCMS (whose Argentine Dist. includes Uruguay) began work 1936. Work of the ULC began in the 1940s, was undergirded by the NLC in the early 1950s, transferred to the Augustana Bd. of World Mission 1956, to the LCA 1962.

11. Rep. of Venezuela (N coast of S. Am.); consists of 20 states, 2 territories, 1 fed. dist. Area: ca. 352, 143 sq. mi. Under Sp. influence and control from the 16th c.; indep. proclaimed 1811, assured 1821; part of confederacy of Greater Colombia 1819–29/30; indep. rep. 1830; unsettled times followed for many decades. Official and universal language: Sp. Official religion: RCm (perhaps ca. 96%); religious freedom guaranteed. Ger. Prot. miss. efforts began in the last half of the 19th c. The LWF supplied a pastor 1949 for Ger. and Latvian services. The NLC supplied additional pastors in the early 1950s. A Luth. Council of Venezuela was formed 1960. LCMS began work 1951. The Conf. of Luth. Chs. in Venezuela was formed in the early 1970s. The Ev. Luth. Ch. in Venezuela was formed 1985.

12. Cooperative Rep. of Guyana (NE coast of S. Am.). Area: ca. 83,000 sq. mi. Settled by Dutch in 17th c.; alternated bet. Dutch and Brit. rule in 18th c., with Brit. rule est. by 1815; colony of Brit. Guiana est. 1831; indep. state in the Comm. 1966; rep. 1970. Official language: Eng.; various others spoken. Religion: perhaps ca. 57% Christian (mainly Angl.), 34% Hindu. 9% Muslim. The Luth. ch. est. by Dutch settlers in New Amsterdam lasted ca. 100 yrs., was then used by Meths., reopened for Luth. services 1875, affiliated with the E. Pennsylvania Syn. 1890. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of (or in) Brit. Guiana, organized 1943 as ULC assoc. syn., became ULC-affiliated syn. 1950. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, III.

13. Surinam (Dutch: Suriname; formerly Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana), on the NE coast of S. Am. Area: ca. 63,040 sq. mi. Explored by Sp. in 16th c. Control changed hands several times when Brit., Fr., and Dutch competed for the area. Awarded to Dutch by Congress of Vienna 1815. Indep. 1975. Official language: Dutch; various others spoken. Religions include Christian, Hindu, Muslim, Jewish. Moravians began work in 1730s. See also Weltz, Justinian(us) Ernst von.

14. French Guiana (NE coast of S. Am.); consists of 2 arrondissements: coastal Cayenne and and hinterland Inini. Area: ca. 32,250 sq. mi. First settled by Fr. early in the 17th c.; changed hands several times under Dutch and Brit. competition; Fr. sovereignity est. ca. 1676; captured by Anglo-Port. force ca. 1808/09; repossessed by Fr. 1817; penal colony est. ca. 1852; Fr. overseas dept. 1946; penal colony closed 1947. Official language: Fr. RCm predominates. Prots. include Salvation Army; Christian Missions in Many Lands; Angls.; Seventh-day Adventists. WED

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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Content Reproduced with Permission

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