1. The 1st wave of the Reformation was Luth. (see Hamilton, Patrick). Calvinism was est. largely through the influence of J. Knox.* The struggle bet. Presbyterianism and Episcopalianism lasted more than a c. In 1560 parliament adopted the confession of faith drawn up by Knox et al. and the Ref. Ch. was est. on Presb. lines. Knox's confession was replaced 1647 by the Westminster Confession 1647 (see Presbyterian Confessions, 3) and the Westminster* Catechisms 1648. With the revolution of 1688 and the fall of James II (see England, C 1) Scot. became overwhelmingly Presb. Union with Eng. 1707 (see Great Britain) brought the ch. in Scot. no share in the pol. and industrial prosperity that followed. Religious indifference reflected in deism* and the claim of the crown and landed aristocracy to clerical patronage* conflicted with Presb. concepts. Resultant dissatisfaction led to secession (see Erskine, Ebenezer; Presbyterian Churches, 1) and organization of the Ref. Presb. Ch. (see Macmillan, John; Presbyterian Churches, 1) and the Relief* Ch. In course of a c. the no. of separatist organizations had grown to ca. 500 congs. The United Secession Ch. was formed 1820, the United Presb. Ch. 1847 (see Presbyterian Churches, 1).
2. At the beginning of the 19th c. a reawakening took place under T. Chalmers* et al. The patronage struggle resumed and led to The Disruption and the organization of the Free* Ch. of Scot. 1843 (see also Presbyterian Churches, 1). The Free Ch. doubled its membership in the next 60 yrs. The right of patronage was removed by parliament 1874. Subsequently the Est. Ch. gained in popularity.
At the end of the 19th c. there were 3 large Presb. chs.: the Est. Ch., the Free Ch., and the United Presb. Ch. The difference bet. them principally involved the relation bet. ch. and state. Negotiations for union of the Free and United chs. opened 1863, broke off 1873, resumed 1896, resulted 1900 in organization of the United* Free Ch. of Scot. A small minority in the Free Ch. opposed union, declared itself to be the only true and legitimate Free Ch., and claimed all property of the Free Ch. Settlement was reached 1904.
3. Scotch Episc. Ch. (Scottish Episc. Ch.; Episc. Ch. of Scot.). Restoration of Charles II 1660 (crowned king Scot. January 1, 1651; defeated by O. Cromwell* at Worcester September 1, 1651; see also England, C 1) was followed by imposition of episcopacy on Scot. The Episc. Ch. came to rival the Presb. Ch. But after the death of Anne (16651714; Stuart queen Gt. Brit. and Ireland 170214) the Episcopalians were supposed to favor James, the Pretender, were regarded with distrust, and suffered repression under The House of Hanover, beginning with George I (George Louis; 16601727; king Gt. Brit. and Ireland 171427). Episcopal clerics regained some freedom 1719 after taking the oath of allegiance; many mems. continued to be nonjurors. The 2d Jacobite Rebellion 174546 nearly completed the destruction of Scotch Episcopalianism, which was regarded with renewed suspicion by The House of Hanover. But at the time of George III (George William Frederick; 17381820; king Gt. Brit. and Ireland 17601820) Episcopalianism clearly ceased to be a nonjuring ch. Restrictive measures were nearly all successively removed 1792, 1840, 1864.
4. Congregationalists. J. Glas(s), deposed from the Presb. ministry for indep., views 1728, formed an indep. ch. at Dundee ca. 1730. Other indep. chs. were organized later. See also Disciples of Christ, 1. The Evangelical* Union was formed 1843, the Cong. Union 1863. The Cong. and Ev. Unions (except for a minority of the latter) united 1896 to form the Cong. Union of Scot. The Bap. Union formed ca. 1750/65 and was comparatively small, Calvinistic in doctrine, simple in worship, and cong. in organization.
6. When the Scot. parliament abrogated papal authority 1560 (see also 1), the RC Ch. in Scot. foundered almost completely. It survived only as a minority, esp. among Highlanders of Gaelic tongue. Its hierarchy was reorganized 1878.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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