Kingdom (founded early in the 11th c.) united 1603 with England* under James* I in the Union of the Crowns or the Personal Union of England and Scotland; occupies the N ca. 37% of the main Brit. is., and the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland, and smaller islands. Area (including islands): ca. 30,400 sq. mi. The people are of diverse origin, including Celts, Angles, and Normans, with heavy Irish immigration in the 19th c. Human settlement dates to the 3d millennium BC Romans who occupied southern areas of the land from the 1st to the 4th cents. AD called it Caledonia. Languages include Gaelic, Lallans (Scots vernacular), and English. The Ch. of Scot. is the est. religion; the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. has 1 cong. in Scot., where it began work 1962; others include RC, Episc., Bap., Cong., and Meth. See also Celtic Church, 3, 7; Chalmers, Thomas; Great Britain; Scotch Confession of Faith; Scotland, Reformation in.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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