(17591805). Poet, playright; b. Marbach, Württemberg, Ger.; military surgeon; went without leave to see performance of his Die Räuber 1781; arrested and forbidden to pub. anything except med. writings; escaped; in Mannheim 178385, Weimar 1787; prof. hist. Jena 1789; friend of J. W. v. Goethe*; in Weimar 17991805. Regarded as greatest Ger. dramatist and 2d only to Goethe in Ger. literature. Combined art, morality, and religion in his writing. His ideal was the schöne Seele (beautiful soul). Cofounder of the literary journal Die Horen; founded Musenalmanach. Other works include Geschichte des dreissigjährigen Krieges; Das Lied von der Glocke; Wallenstein; Wilhelm Tell; Maria Stuart; Die Jungfrau von Orleans.
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