In a wide sense, sanctification includes all effects of God's Word in man (cf., e.g., Acts 26:18; Eph 5:26; 2 Th 2:13; Heb 10:14; 1 Ptr 1:2). See also Conversion, III; Good Works.
In a narrow sense, sanctification is the spiritual growth (1 Co 3:9; 9:24; Eph 4:15; Ph 3:12) that follows justification (Mt 7:1618; Jn 3:6; Eph 2:10). By God's grace (Gl 5:2223; Ph 2:13) a Christian cooperates in this work (2 Co 6:1; 7:1; Ph 2:12; 1 Ti 4:14; FC SD II 6566); through the Holy Spirit's work faith is increased daily, love strengthened, and the image of God renewed (cf., e.g., Jn 14:26; 16:1314; Ro 6:1523; 8:1516, 26; 14:17; 15:13; 1 Co 12:711; Gl 5:1618; 2 Ptr 3:18). A believer's good works are not perfect; but sins of weakness are forgiven (Jn 15:3). Sanctification differs in the same Christian at different times (Ro 7:1419; Gl 2:11; 5:17; 1 Jn 1:8).
God works sanctification only through the means of grace.*
The most comforting part of the doctrine of sanctification is that which speaks of the completion of sanctification in heaven (Ps 17:15; I Co 13:12; 15:2057; Rv 7:917; 21:47). RLS
R. L. Sommer, Sanctification, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 275298; A. Köberle, The Quest for Holiness, tr. J. C. Mattes (Minneapolis, 1936); C. G. Carlfelt, The Work of the Holy Spirit, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947); C. J. I. Bergendoff, The Secular Idea of Progress and the Christian Doctrine of Sanctification (Rock Island, 1933); R. Hermann, Luthers These Gerecht und Sünder zugleich (Gütersloh, 1960); K. Barth, The Christian Life, tr. J. S. McNab (London, 1930); W. E. Hulme, The Dynamics of Sanctification (Minneapolis, 1966).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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