Term coined by C. Baronius* for ca. 880ca. 1046 (last yrs. of the Carolingians to the beginning of the Gregorian reform [named after Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) but begun under Clement II (Suidger; Suitger; pope 104647)]), a period darkened esp. in Fr. and more esp. It. by inner decay and outer threats by Saracens, Vikings, and Hung., which adversely affected morals, civil order, and cultural development. See also Dark Age(s).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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