Have been divided into 2 groups: 1. Raskolniks (Raskolniki; Russ. schismatics) par excellence, who dissent from liturgical reforms of Nikon; divided into Popovtsy (who maintain the hierarchical structure of episcopate and priesthood) and Bezpopovtsy (Russ. priestless). 2. Schismatics for other reasons; e.g., (a) Khlysty; originated in the 17th c. or earlier; held that God becomes incarnate in many Christs through their suffering; followed ascetic and ecstatic practices. (b) Skoptsy (Russ. eunuchs); originated probably 18th c.; stress Mt 19:12; women usually have their breasts amputated. (c) Doukhobors (Dukhobors); originated 18th c.; follow those as prophets and leaders in whom they believe the Spirit is embodied; emphasize supreme authority of inner experience; reject external ecclesiastical and civil authority (e.g., refusing to pay taxes and do military service). (d) Molokans (or Molokani); offshoot of Doukhobors; antiritualistic; stress authority of the Bible; also called Spiritual Christians. (e) Stundists; originated ca. 1860/64, primarily in S Russ.; probably named after devotional hours (Ger. Stunden) at the colony of Rohrbach, visited by Russians; influenced by Baps.; hostile toward ritual, sacraments, and icons.
See also Verígin, Peter Vasilich.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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