(August 7, 1760June 26, 1832). Luth. theol.; b. Iserlohn, Duchy of Cleves, Westphalia, near the lower Rhine; educ. Halle, where he was influenced by J. S. Semler*; private tutor 2 yrs.; ordained 1783 by Luth. consistory Amsterdam; pastor Curaçao, W. Indies; pol. unrest caused him to sail with his family for home via New York 1795; decided to stay in Am.; pastor at various places in New York more than 30 yrs.; pres. New York Ministerium 180725. Rationalism* and Socinianism* increased under his leadership; he denied the doctrine of original sin; the doctrines of the Trin., deity of Christ, Baptism, Lord's Supper, wrath of God, and Christ's priestly office are either not mentioned or are not clearly taught in his writings. Works include a catechism; a treatise on magic; 3 sermons on the Luth. Reformation.
H. J. Kreider, History of The United Lutheran Synod of New York and New England (Philadelphia, 1954); J. Nicum, The Doctrinal Development of the New York Ministerium, The Lutheran Church Review, VI (1887), 140152; Annals of the American Pulpit, issued also as part of Annals of the American Pulpit, ed. W. B. Sprague, IX (New York, 1869), 115121. WWW
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