1. 847ca. 868. Began when Gottschalk* of Orbais began spreading his views on predestination in It., ended with his death. Rediscussion of the stricter and laxer view of the Augustinian doctrine of predestination (see Pelagian Controversy). Gottschalk, who held an absolute predestination, was immediately opposed by Rabanus* Maurus and condemned by a syn. at Mainz 848. Hincmar* was instructed to take necessary measures against him. Gottschalk was condemned again 849 by a syn. at Crécy (Chiersy; Quierzy; other variants), Fr., and imprisoned for the rest of his life in the convent at Hautvilliers.
Gottschalk's view was defended by Ratramnus,* Lupus* Servatus, Remigius* of Lyons, Florus,* et al. and was confirmed by a syn. at Valence 855 and Langres 859. But a syn. at Crécy 853 adopted a different view. J. S. Erigena* set forth a 3d theory. A syn. at Savonnières, near Toul, postponed final decision to the 860 syn. at Toucy, near Toul, which expressed only the common ground among parties to the controversy. Finally, Gottschalk appealed to Nicholas I (see Popes, 5) 866, might have been successful, but was outmaneuvered by Hincmar, who refused him Communion and Christian burial unless he would recant. Gottschalk refused, died in his belief, and was buried in unconsecrated soil.
2. The name Predestinarian Controversy is also applied to a controversy over conversion and election bet. mems. of the Mo. Syn., the Ohio Syn., and other Luth. bodies in Am. in the 1880s. See also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 10; Intuitu fidei; Lange, Carl Heinrich Rudolf; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V 12, VI 1; Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 5; Thirteen Theses.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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