2. Leo I (ca. 390461). B. probably Tuscany; pope 440461; opposed Pelagianism,* Manichaeism,* and Priscillianists*; pressed claims to jurisdiction in Sp., Gaul, and Afr.; persuaded Attila to spare Rome 452; first bp. of Rome to achieve recognition of claim to supremacy as successor of Peter (hence regarded by many as the 1st pope in distinction from preceding bps. of Rome); Valentinian III (419455; W Roman emp. 425455) proclaimed his jurisdiction in the W; his definition of the person of Christ was adopted by the Council of Chalcedon.* See also Plenitudo potestatis.
3. Vigilius (b. before 500). B. Rome; pope 537(8?)555; probably elected pope at instigation of Theodora (ca. 508548; m. Justinian* I 523); changed position several times regarding the Three* Chapters, finally condemning them 554.
4. Gregory I (ca. 540604). The Great, father of medieval papacy; b. Rome; pope 590604; followed the teaching of Augustine* of Hippo; extended papal power into the realm of politics; sent Augustine, prior of St. Andrew's monastery, Rome, to Eng. 596; rejected title Papa universalis claimed by patriarch at Constantinople. Works are pervaded by superstitions, including mythological reflections about angels and demons. Writings include Moralia (exposition of Jb); Regula pastoralis; homilies. See also Augustine of Canterbury; Church Year, 17; Doctor of the Church; Fathers of the Church; Gregorian Music; Hymnody, Christian, 3.
6. Sylvester II (Silvester; Gerbert; ca. 9401003). Pope 9991003; b. near Aurillac, Auvergne, Fr.; educ. Aurillac, Barcelona, Rome, Reims; eminent scholar; taught at Reims; abp. Reims 991, Ravenna 998; dialectic philos. Works include writings on theol., mathematics, music, and the sciences.
7. Gregory VII (Hildebrand; ca. 102085). Pope 107385; b. perhaps near Siena, Tuscany, It.; regarded by many as the most noteworthy character of the Middle Ages after Charlemagne*; closely associated with previous popes from Leo* IX; instituted reforms directed against clerical concubinage, simony,* and lay* investiture; compelled emp. Henry* IV to humble penance at Canossa 1077; Henry besieged Gregory at Rome; Gregory was freed by R. Guiscard* but forced into exile. See also England, A 3.
8. Adrian IV (Hadrian; Nicholas Breakspear; ca. 110059). Pope 115459; b. near St. Albans, Eng.; the only Englishman to become pope; known for insistence on papal supremacy in conflict with emp. Frederick* I.
9. Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli; ca. 110581). Pope 115981; b. Siena, It.; in conflict with emp. Frederick* I; opposed by 4 antipopes: Victor IV, Paschal III, Calixtus III, Innocent III (not to be confused with 10); successful in conflict with Henry* II of Eng. See also Becket, Thomas à.
10. Innocent III (Lothar of Segni; Giovanni Lotario de' Conti [di Segni]; 11611216). Pope 11981216; b. Anagni, It.; educ. Bologna and Paris; brought papacy to its pinnacle; Eng., Aragon, Port., and other kingdoms became papal fiefs; promoted the 4th Crusade (see Crusades, 5). See also England, A 3; Vicar of Christ.
11. Gregory IX (Hugo [lino]; Ugo[lino]; ca. 11701241). Pope 122741; b. Anagni, It.; excommunicated Frederick* II 1227 for abandoning the idea of a crusade, and again 1239; entrusted Inquisition* largely to Dominicans* 1232. Pub. decretals 1234 (see Decrees). See also Alexander IV; Raymond of Peñafort; Stedingers.
12. Boniface VIII (Benedetto Caetani; Benedict Gaetani; ca. 12351303). Pope 12941303; b. Anagni, It.; issued Sext 1298, which contains decretals (see Decrees) after those compiled by Gregory IX. See also Bull; Canon Law, 3; Church and State, 7; Two Swords.
13. John XXII (Jacques Duèse; other forms include Duèze, Dueza, Deuze, d'Euse, d'Euze; [of Cahors]; ca. 1245/491334). Pope 131634; b. Cahors, Fr.; had long conflict with the emp.; opposed Franciscan Spirituals* (see also Franciscans); enl. and reorganized the curia.* See also Babylonian Captivity, 2.
14. Gregory XI (Pierre Roger de Beaufort; ca. 1329/311378). Pope 137078; b. near Limoges, Fr.; condemned teachings of J. Wycliffe; ended the Babylonian Captivity (see Babylonian Captivity, 2) by returning to Rome 1377. See also Ambrosians.
15. Pius II (Enea Silvio [Aeneas Sylvius (Silvius)] Piccolomini; 140564). Pope 145864; b. near Siena, It.; bp. Siena 1449; took name Pins as pope in reference to Vergil's pious Aeneas; before he became pope he supported the conciliar* movement, but 1460 he condemned it in his bull Execrabilis (see Execrabilis, 2).
16. Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere; 141484). Pope 147184; b. Celle Ligure, near Savona, It.; Gen. of the Franciscans 1464; cardinal 1467; erected Sistine Chapel and Sistine Bridge, whose heavy cost helped make him unpopular; rearranged and enl. the Vatican library; promoted doctrine of the immaculate* conception; addicted to avarice, nepotism, and simony.* See also Indulgences, 4; Inquisition, 6.
17. Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cibo; 143292). Pope 148492; b. Genoa, It.; educ. Rome and Padua; bp. Savona 1467; cardinal 1473; interfered in Eng. politics; appointed T. de Torquemada* grand inquisitor of Sp.
18. Alexander VI (Rodrigo Lanzol y Borja [Borgia]; father's surname: Lanzol or Llançol; mother's family name: Borgia or Borja, assumed by him on elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Calixtus* III in 1455; ca. 14311503). Pope 14921503; b. Játiva [Xátiva], Valencia, Sp.; known for mental gifts and moral defects; opposed by G. Savonarola.* See also Holy Leagues and Alliances, 1.
19. Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere; 14431513). Pope 150313; b. Albisola Superiore, near Savona, It.; joined Sp., Fr., and Ger. in League of Cambrai against Venice 1508; joined Aragon and Venice against Fr. 1511 (see Holy Leagues and Alliances, 3); convened 5th Lateran* Council 1512; patron of art; pope at the time of M. Luther's visit (see Luther, Martin, 5). See also States of the Church, 3.
20. Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici; 14751521). Pope 151321; b. Florence, It.; cardinal 1488; used his influence in the interest of his family; est. a concordat with Francis I of Fr. (see France, 8); misunderstood the importance of M. Luther 1519, excommunicated him 1521 (see Luther, Martin, 13). See also Lateran Councils.
21. Pius V (Michele [Antonio?] Ghislieri; 150472). Pope 156672; b. Bosco Marengo, near Alessandria, It.; Dominican; tried to enforce reform decrees of the Council of Trent*; ordered pub. of Catechismus Romanus 1566 (see also Roman Catholic Confessions, A 3), Breviarium Romanum 1568 (see also Breviary), and Missale Romanum 1570 (see also Missal); excommunicated Elizabeth* I 1570. See also Counter Reformation, 9.
22. Sixtus V (Felice Peretti; ca. 1520/211590). Pope 158590; b. Grotammare, near Montalto, in the March of Ancona, It.; tried to enforce reforms of the Council of Trent*; ordered all bps. to report to Rome at stated intervals; fixed the number of cardinals* at 70 in 1586; aided Sp. in war against Eng. 158788; sanctioned the Sistine ed. of the Vulgate (see Bible Versions, J 2) in the bull Aeternus ille 1590 (the ed. was so poor that it was withdrawn after Sixtus' death). See also Curia, 2 b, d.
23. Innocent X (Giambattista [Gian Battista; Giovanni Battista] Pamfili [pamphili]; ca. 1572/741655). Pope 164455; b. Rome, It.; in a 1648 breve* he repeated previous protests against certain terms of the Peace of Westphalia*; condemned Jansenism.* See also Ambrosians.
24. Benedict XIV (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini; 16751758). Pope 174058; b. Bologna, It.; educ. Rome; cardinal 1728; abp. Bologna 1731; settled the accommodation controversy (see Accommodation, 5) by bulls issued 1742 and 1744; promoted education, science, and literature; followed a liberal for. policy. See also Assumption, Feast of the.
25. Clement XIV (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli; 170574). Pope 176974; b. Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, near Rimini, It.; cardinal 1759; cultivated good relations with secular powers; suppressed Society* of Jesus 1773.
26. Pius VI (Giovanni Angelo Braschi; 171799). Pope 177599; b. Cesena, It.; opposed Febronianism,* Josephinism,* and Gallicanism*; took part in First Eur. Coalition against Fr. (formed 1792/93); defeated by Napoleon* I; d. a prisoner at Valence, Fr.
27. Pius VII (Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti; 17421823). Pope 180023; b. Cesena, It., made concordat with Fr. 1801 (see Concordat, 5; France, 5); crowned Napoleon* I 1804; papacy declined; Holy* Roman Empire ended 1806; the Congress of Vienna 1814/15 restored much papal power. See also States of the Church, 3.
28. Pius IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 17921878). Pope 184678; b. Senigallia, It.; lost papal states 1870 to Victor Emmanuel II (182078; 1st king of It. 186178), thus creating the Roman Question (settled under Pius XI [see 32]); defined the doctrine of the Immaculate* Conception 1854; convened Vatican* Council I, which promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility; created many new dioceses, notably also in the US See also Antonelli, Giacomo; Kulturkampf. See also States of the Church, 3; Syllabus of Errors.
29. Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci; 18101903). Pope 18781903; b. Carpineto, It.; cardinal 1853; statesman and scholar; favored renewal of Thomist scholasticism*; founded the Cath. U. of Am., Washington, D. C., 1889. See also Commission, Biblical; Kulturkampf.
30. Pius X (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 18351914). Pope 190314; b. Riese, It.; bp. Mantua 1884; cardinal 1893; issued the decree Lamentabili and the encyclical Pascendi against Modernism (see Modernism, 1); reorganized the curia 1908 (see Curia, 2 b); est. the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; est. Acta* apostolicae sedis. See also Roman Catholic Confessions, D.
32. Pius XI (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti; 18571939). Pope 192239; b. Desio, near Milan, It.; known for many encyclicals (e.g., the marriage encyclical Casti connubii; see also Family Planning, 6); promoted art and science (e.g., with the apostolic* constitution Deus scientiarum Dominus 1931); gave specific content and worldwide significance to Catholic* Action; est. Roman Institute for Christian Archaeol. 1925, Russ. Coll. 1929, Rumanian Coll. 1930; made the Ethiopian Coll. a pontifical coll. 1930. See also Concordat, 7.
33. Pius XII (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli; 18761958). Pope 193958; b. Rome, It.; abp. Sardi 1917; signed concordat with Bav. 1924, Prussia 1929; cardinal 1929; papal secy. of state 1930; concluded concordat with Baden 1932; traveled widely (also to US 1936); during WW II he favored peace, but not at any price; opposed communism. See also Assumption, Feast of the.
34. John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; 18811963). Pope 195863; b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo, It.; cardinal 1953; raised the number of cardinals above 70 1958; convened Vatican* Council II; approved liturgical reforms; authorized use of vernacular in services; created a pontifical commission to revise CIC; made all E rite patriarchs mems. of the Cong. for the Oriental Ch.; initiated cordial relations with the patriarch of Constantinople; promoted missions and a better climate in interfaith relations; encyclicals include Mater et Magistra and Pacem in terris.
35. Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini; 18971978). Pope 196378; b. Concesio, Lombardy, It.; abp. Milan 1954; cardinal 1958; continued the program of John XXIII and Vatican* Council II; instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Media of Social Communication; est. Secretariat for Non-Christians and Secretariat for Non-Believers; fostered ecumenical relations; est. a commission to implement liturgical renewal; promoted world peace. See also Curia, 2 d. EL
36. John Paul I (Albino Luciani; 191278). Pope August 26September 28 (death officially set at 11 p.m.), 1978; b. Forno di Canale (renamed Canale d' Agordo 1964), Veneto region, Belluno province, NE It.; studied at Bellune and Rome; ordained 1935; in 1937 curate first at Forno di Canale, then at Agerdo; vice-rector and prof. Belluno 193747; successively prochancellor, provicar gen., and vicar-gen. of the diocese; bp. Vittorio Veneto 1958; patriarch Venice 1969; cardinal 1973. Drew his name as pope from John XXIII, who consecrated him and whom he had succeeded in Venice, and Paul VI, who made him cardinal. Shortest reign since the 27 days of Leo XI in 1605; shortest of all: the 3 days of Stephen II in 752. Has little impact on policy or dogma.
37. John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla; 1920 ). Pope 1978; b. Wadowice, Poland; studied at Cracow; ordained 1946; taught at Lublin from 1953; auxiliary bp. Cracow 1958, abp. 1964; cardinal 1967. First non-It. pope since Adrian VI (14591523; b. Utrecht, Holland; pope 152223). See also Canon Law, 4. LP
H. K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the (Early) Middle Ages, 18 vols. in 19 (London, 190232); L. v. Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, Eng. title History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, various editors and translators, 40 vols. (London, 18911953); L. v. Ranke, The History of the Popes, tr. E. Foster, 3 vols. (London, 1896).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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