Belief that there are many ultimate substances, not only 1 (see Monism) or 2 (see Dualism). Empedocles* held that there are 4 elements; M. E. de Montaigne* felt that diversity is the rule of nature; G. W. v. Leibniz* advocated pluralism in his system of monads; C. S. S. Peirce,* W. James,* and J. Dewey* rejected monism in favor of pluralism; ideas of diversity are also found in the Gen. Semantics* movement.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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