1. Area: ca. 115,800 sq. mi. Consists of ca. 7,100 islands; ca. 2,773 are named; ca. 462 are larger than 1 sq. mi.; part of Malay Archipelago. Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 14801521; Port. navigator), exploring for Sp., discovered the islands 1521 and was slain during a tribal feud. The islands came under dominion and control of Sp. 156484. Intermittent native rebellions led to revolution 1896. At the end of the Sp.-Am. war the islands were ceded to the US 1898; indep. 1946. Filipinos are basically Malayan and Indonesian, but strongly influenced by Sp., Am., and Chinese cultures. Heavy W influence is evident in cities. Civilization is highly developed, but some animistic groups remain, e.g., on Luzon and Mindanao. Languages include 87 dialects; Tagalog is the nat. tongue; Eng. is in gen. use; Sp. is the language of the elite.
2. Ca. 83% is RC As a result of schism ca. the time of the Sp.-Am. war, the Philippine Indep. Ch. (Iglesia Filipina Independiente) was formed 1902. As a result of factionalism, part of the Philippine Indep. Ch. entered into full communion with the Prot. Episc. Ch. of the US 1961; the other part, Unitarian, broke into several sects. Other Christian bodies total less than 5% of the pop. Other religious groups include Muslim (ca. 2,000,000), animists (ca. 400,000), and Buddhists (ca. 43,000, mostly Chinese).
3. The Mo. Syn. entered the Philippines 1946. Under leadership of Alvaro A. Carino, a native, educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, work expanded from Manila to Pangasinan and Ilocos Sur provinces 1948, to Mountain province 1949. Missionaries also entered Mindanao is. 1949, the Visayas 1959, Cebu and Leyte 1960. 1962 saw the beginning of miss. work among Muslim on Mindanao and est. of the Dept. of Mass Communications and the Dept. of Lay Training (later called Dept. of Parish Educ.). Other ventures include a med. program among highlanders and a theol. sem. (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, VII, 14). The Luth. Ch. in the Philippines (1966 constitutional name) adopted new bylaws 1968; reorganized 1970; joined Nat. Christian Council in the Philippines; was accepted 1971 as a sister ch. of LCMS; pres: Alvaro A. Carino 196872, David Schneider 1972 JJJ
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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