Syns. were held 850, 855, 866, 876, 878, 889, 997, 998, 1018 (1022?), 1046, 1049, 1076, 1081, 1114, 1128, 1160, and 1423 at Pavia (near Milan), Lombardy, N It. The 1018 (1022?) syn., convoked by Benedict* VIII, adopted severe resolutions against clerical marriage. The 1423 syn., convened by Martin* V, opened April 23 and moved in June to Siena (ancient Saena Julia), Tuscany, cen. It., because of the pest, was ineffective in attempts at reform because of national controversies and attempts to limit the papacy. See also Celibacy.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
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