1. Some RCs rejected the decree of papal infallibility and absolutism (see Nürnberg Declaration, The; Vatican Councils, 1 b), seceded from the RC Ch., and est. an indep. organization known as Old Catholics.
3. The 1st Old Cath. Congress met September 1871 Munich, the 2d in September 1872 at Cologne. An electoral body chose Reinkens bp. June 1873; he was consecrated in August The 3d Congress met September 1873 Constance and adopted a const. Some Old Caths. considered themselves bound by the Council of Trent* until 1889, when the doctrinal basis of Old Caths. was formalized in the Declaration of Utrecht.* Old Caths. recognize doctrines accepted before 1054. The Bible and tradition are admitted as sources of revelation. But Old Caths. have been affected by Prot. influences. The clergy is permitted to marry. Bible reading is encouraged. The mass is celebrated in the vernacular.
4. Abortive miss. efforts in Am. early in the 20th c. resulted in Old Cath. chs. not recognized by those of Eur., e.g., N. Am. Old RC Ch. (formerly N. Am. Cath. Ch.); Old Cath. Ch. in Am.; Old Cath. Archdiocese of the Americas and Eur.; Ref. Cath. Ch. (Utrecht Confession), Province of N. Am.; The Am. Cath. Ch., Archdiocese of New York.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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