Metaphysical theory that reduces all phenomena to 1 material or spiritual principle. It considers God and world, matter and spirit, body and soul to be modifications of 1 principle. Manifestations of monism include pantheism,* which identifies God and the world; materialism,* which regards matter as basic reality; and spiritualism or idealism,* which regards spiritual beings or ideas as the only basis of reality.
Metaphysical monism is opposed to Christianity. The Bible asserts essential difference bet. Creator and creation.
See also Dualism; Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August; Pluralism; Russell, Bertrand Arthur William; Thales; Wolff, Christian von.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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