A. Dynamic Monarchianism. Christ is a mere man (though conceived by the Holy Spirit and born in a wonderful way of the Virgin Mary) whom God endowed with His power (Gk. dynamis). See also Adoptionism.
2. Theodotians. Followers of Theodotus* the Fuller; 2 of his followers, a certain Asclepiodotus (apparently a Gk.) and Theodotus* the Money Changer, tried unsuccessfully to found their own ch. at Rome.
4. Paul* of Samosata. Held that Jesus was from hence, and that the Logos worked in Him from above.
B. Modalistic Monarchianism. View that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not 3 persons but 3 modes or forms of God's activity; God revealed Himself as Father in the work of creation, as Son in the work of redemption (Patripassianism*), and as the Holy Spirit in the work of sanctification.
6. Sabellius.* Modalistic Monarchianism as developed under him is known as Sabellianism: God, the absolute monad, reveals Himself successively in 3 prosopa (Gk. faces), each representing the entire monad (Father: Creator and Lawgiver; Son: Redeemer; Holy Spirit: Lifegiver). Opposed by Dionysius* of Alexandria.
See also Unitarianism.
K. G. A. v. Harnack, History of Dogma, tr. N. Buchanan et al. (London, 189499); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); F. Loofs, Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte, 4th rev. ed. (Halle, 1906); R. Seeberg, Text-book of the History of Doctrines, tr. C. E. Hay (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1952).
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