I. Christ instructed His disciples before commissioning them to preach. Paul and other apostles trained colaborers by instruction. Facing gnostics and heathen philosophers demanded educ. leaders in the ch. In course of time, catechetical schools were est. for instruction in Christian doctrine preparatory to ch. membership; these schools came to prepare men for the ministry. See also Catechetics, 3; Exegesis, 3; Schools, Early Christian.
II. Standards declined in the Middle Ages. Students in urban areas were trained in monasteries and cathedral schools, those in rural areas were trained by local priests. In course of time, training became so deficient that even some who became bps. found it hard to preach a short sermon, and many priests had difficulty reading appointed Scripture lessons in pub. services. Charlemagne* gathered men of learning about him and encouraged better ministerial training (see also Alcuin).
III. The 13th c. brought great change. Theol. schools were united with univs.; those at Paris and Oxford became esp. famous. Peter* the Lombard's Sententiarum libri quatuor became the standard textbook. Both lecture and discussion methods were used. The Renaissance* left its mark on ministerial training.
IV. As the Luth. Reformation* conquered most of cen. Eur., it was hard to provide able ministers for the thousands of ev. congs. The average educ. of RC priests was minimal. In the preface to the SC M. Luther* says: Many pastors are quite unfit and incompetent to teach. Leaders of the Reformation were gathered into a faculty at Wittenberg to train future ministers. But it took time to effect widespread and lasting improvement. During the 1st 25 yrs. most men ordained by M. Luther, J. Bugenhagen,* and their assistants were without university or coll. educ. Before the middle of the c., men with full university training had become the rule, and the standard of examinations before ordination was consistently raised. Scholastic theol. gave way to exegesis (study of the Bible on basis of its original languages), systematic theol. (study of Bible doctrines), and practical theol. (emphasizing preaching and teaching). So the foundation was laid for the 4 depts. of present-day Luth. theol. sems.: Exegetic, Systematic, Historical, Practical.
The Council of Trent* (Sess. V, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. 1) ordered provision for theol. educ. in every cathedral ch.; later it made each diocese responsible for the theol. educ. of its clerics and gave govt. of the sems. to the resp. bps. (Sess. XXIII, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. 18).
V. The beneficial influence of the Reformation was brief. Within a c., university training became mainly intellectual and philos. In the 18th c., rationalism* gained control even in theol. faculties, with devastating effect on the ministry. In the 19th c., scientific and liberal thinking dominated Prot. Eur. theol. and spread to other countries. The Kropp* Sem. trained hundreds of pastors for Luths. in Am.
VI. In the US, ministers are trained without interference by the state. Each denomination establishes its plan of educ., confessional basis, and schools for its own communion. Most Prot. ministers who came with early settlers or emigrated to the colonies before ca. 1700 were educ. in Eur. With the growth of an Am. ch. came the need for Am. theol. educ.
A. Colleges, patterned after Eur. schools, were established. Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1636), William and Mary (Williamsburg, Virginia; 1693), Yale (New Haven, Connecticut; 1701), Princeton (Princeton, New Jersey; 1746) were founded with ministerial educ. as one primary objective. In the early days, the Am. coll. of liberal arts was a distinctively religious institution, and the educ. offered was centered in equipping men for the ministry. The Bible was taught on basis of its original languages, and all students were held to learn its doctrines and precepts. Chairs of divinity were est. (Hollis professorship of divinity at Harvard 1721; Yale professorship of divinity 1755). These schools were inaccessible to candidates for the ministry living far away. Such candidates sought private instruction from a neighboring minister. J. Bellamy trained scores of students in his home, N. Emmons perhaps nearly 100 (see also New England Theology, 4). H. M. Mühlenberg* also tutored students. Private tutoring was not always of high quality. Am. chs. began to consider est. schools exclusively for ministerial training. The Dutch Ref. Ch. est. what is usually regarded as the 1st separate Prot. sem. in Am. at Flatbush, Long Island, New York, 1784, under J. H. Livingston.* RC St. Mary's Sem., Baltimore, Maryland, was est. 1791. Congregationalists est. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. 1807/08. A divinity school was est. at Harvard 1819, Yale 1822. The Hartford (Connecticut) Theol. Sem. was founded 1833/34. Other similar schools were est. in course of time, some ch.-controlled, some indep. See also Higher Education, 10; Protestant Education in the United States.
B. At the beginning of the 19th c. the Prot. chs. felt that each denomination could best train its own ministry by founding as many sems. as it considered necessary under direct denominational control, setting its own educ. standards and doctrinal position. Many sems. received many students without coll. preparation. Problems incident to WW I led to a 1918 gathering of a group of theol. educators at Cambridge, Massachusetts As a result, a conf. of theol. sems. and colleges was formed. In 1936 this conf. became The Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools, which adopted standards for accreditation and placed theol. educ. at the graduate level, requiring an AB or its equivalent for admission to a 3-yr. course leading to the BD, and a faculty of at least 4 full-time profs., and setting standards for library, equipment, finances, etc. Schools which did not conform were not admitted. 1926 religious census figures for 17 of the largest white Prot. denominations in the US show that 2 in 5 of all ministers in these denominations were not grads. of a coll. or theol. sem.; only 1 in 3 was a grad. of both. The highest proportion of ministers who were both coll. and sem. grads. was in the Luth. Church.
C. Luths. in Am. also first looked to Eur. for ministers. Ca. the middle of the 18th c. it became evident that this source would be inadequate or cease entirely. A beginning of a native ministry was made by appointing certain men as theol. instructors authorized to prepare young men for the ministry. Candidates were then examined by the clergy in convention. Hartwick* Sem., the 1st Luth. school, was est. 1797, but was not an official ch. sem. The 1st official Luth. theol. sem. in Am. opened 1826 at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (see Gettysburg Seminary). The Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., begun 1830 at Canton, Ohio, by the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, moved 1831 to Columbus; connected with Capital U. till 1959. In 1839 Luth. immigrants from Saxony founded, in Perry Co., Missouri, the school that developed into Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri See also Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary.
VII. Pretheological Training.
A. General. The 1st colleges in the US were strictly religious institutions; all students were required to take theol. courses. But the attitude toward religion underwent a radical change. The old colleges became indep. and self-perpetuating. Increasing emphasis has been put on physical sciences. Rise of state univs. affected ministerial training. In these schools the demand for practical courses, designed to fit men for business or profession, has been crowding out the liberal arts coll. Credit courses in religion are offered in some state univs. The number of students of theol. sems. from state univs. and the old colleges is comparatively small.
B. These trends led to many ch.-related schools, listed in Yearbook of American Churches.
C. 1. When pub. schools became widespread ca. 1850, parish schools decreased in number. New impetus was given the parish schools by the Saxon Luth. immigrants and the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V, 56; Parish Education; Teachers).
Conc. Coll., Ann Arbor, MI, founded 1963 as Conc. Luth. (Jr.) Coll.; became a 4-yr. coll. 1975; Luth. dropped from the name 1976; teacher training certified effective 1982 LCMS See also Concordia University System; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The VII 12.
Lenoir Rhyne Coll., Hickory, North Carolina, founded 1891; LCA See also Lutheran Church in America, V; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16.
Newberry Coll., Newberry, South Carolina, founded 1856; LCA See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27.
St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, founded 1893; 4-yr. coll. authorized 1981; closed by the 1986 LCMS conv.; campus sold for $700,000 to the city of Winfield January 1, 1989. See also Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of.
Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, founded 1866; LCA See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 24.
1. Without high school academy:
Marion Coll., Marion, Virginia, founded 1873; LCA LCA recognition withdrawn at end of 1967; school closed. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 29.
2. With high school academy:
Camrose Luth. Coll., Camrose, Alberta, Can., founded 1911 by Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. and The United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.; ALC/ELCC 1960; affiliated with U. of Alberta 1959. See also Canada, B 20.
D. The syn. or group of syns. operating Luth. sems. writes the const. by which the respective sem. is governed. The syn. elects the Bd. of Control. In most cases the membership of the bd. is divided bet. clergy and laity.
Profs. at the sems. are selected either by the syn. in conv. or by the Bd. of Control or Bd. of Electors. Many syns. require an active parish ministry prior to sem. teaching. Regularly called Luth. teachers are pledged to Holy Scripture and the Lutheran* Confessions. Evidence that a teacher no longer holds the belief to which he is pledged makes him subject to discipline and possible dismissal.
D. Conc. Luth. Theol. Sem., St. Catharines, Ont., Can. Authorized by the 1975 LCMS conv. as a branch of Conc. Theol. Sem., Ft. Wayne, Indiana; opened in fall 1976; authorized as an indep. sem. by the 1979 LCMS convention. Est. as an LCC school by November 1981 resolution of the LCC.
Ownership, control, and supervision of the school, which moved to temporary quarters in St. Louis 1849 and to a more permanent location on S. Jefferson Ave. 1850, passed into the hands of the Mo. Syn. 1849/50. C. F. W. Walther* was its 1st prof. theol. (by syn. designation 1849) and its leading teacher and pres. (the latter from 1854) until his death 1887. It received a formal charter from the state of Missouri 1853. In 1861 the classical (preparatory) dept. (Gymnasium) moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the practical sem. moved from Fort Wayne to St. Louis; the practical sem. moved to Springfield, Illinois, 1875.
In 1882/83 a new bldg. replaced the one begun 1849. In 1907 an addition was built, increasing the capacity to ca. 300 resident students. In 1926 the sem. moved to a site (ca. 71 acres) at 801 De Mun Ave., Clayton (suburb of St. Louis), where an entirely new Tudor-Gothic plant had been erected for ca. $3,000,000. KFUO (see Radio Stations, Religious, 3) is on the W part of the campus. Later construction includes Sieck Hall, dormitories, Ludwig E. Fuerbringer Hall, and Luther Tower.
A pretheological yr. was part of the curriculum 193857 as bridge bet. jr. colleges and the sem. The BA was first awarded 1940 after the 2d yr. of study. In view of the est. of Concordia* Sr. Coll., Ft. Wayne, Indiana, entrance requirements were stated in terms of a BA In 1959 the first grads. of Conc. Sr. Coll. entered under the rev. curriculum. The BD was awarded after the 4th yr. The sem. was fully accredited by the Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools 1964. The BD nomenclature has been changed to MDiv (Master of Divinity), the current program of pastoral education.
The curriculum falls into the 4 traditional areas of exegetic, systematic, hist., and practical theol. Primary goals: to introd. each student to essential knowledge and skills in these 4 areas, to outline the course that future growth and use of the material can take, and to instill a desire to work with people in the application of the Gospel.
The sem. has an extensive field work program. Six students vicared 190304. The dept. of field work was officially est. 1945. In their first 2 yrs. students take part in local cong. and inst. field work. The 3d yr. is spent in a ministerial internship (or vicarage) under supervision of a LCMS pastor and is followed by 4th-yr. academic courses.
A Correspondence School was founded 1920. One-week summer sessions began 1929 but encountered difficulty as a result of the Depression. A solid program of summer work began 1951.
Graduate courses were introduced in the fall of 1922. The School for Graduate Studies began 1923 with six students; operations were suspended 19311937. Originally only courses for the STM degree were offered. In 1944 a director of graduate studies was appointed and a ThD program was inaugurated. The MAR program was established 1956. In 1989 the MAR program was established 1956. In 1989 the MAR program was changed to MA In 1998 the ThD program was changed to PhD and the School for Grad. Studies was renamed the Graduate School. The dir. of grad. studies became the Dean of the Grad. School. The Grad. School also offers a professional degree, the DMin.
Pres.: C. F. W. Walther* 185487, F. A. O. Pieper* 18871931, L. E. Fuerbringer* 193143, L. J. Sieck* 194352, Alfred O. Fuerbringer (19031997) 195369, John H. Tietjen (b. 1928) 196974 (removed from office), Ralph A. Bohlmann (b. 1932) 19741981, Karl L. Barth (b. 1924) 19821990, John F. Johnson (b. 1948) 1990
F. Conc. Theol. Sem., Ft. Wayne, IN, est. 1846 in Ft. Wayne, as a practical sem. (see Löhe, Johann Conrad Wilhelm): deeded to Mo. Syn. 1847; moved to St. Louis, Missouri 1861, where it functioned with the theoretical sem. (see X C) until 1875, when it moved to Springfield, IL on grounds of the former IL State U. In 1976, it moved to the campus of Conc. Sr. Coll. In addition to the MDiv, it now offers the M.A., STM, and D. Missiology degrees.
The policy of the sem. is to educate for the ministry men who have a BA The MDiv degree is offered. This degree was first conferred on graduates of the 197273 class. Field work and an internship year are integral elements of the curriculum. The sem. is a member Of the American Association of Theological Schools.
Pres.: W. Sihler* 184661, C. F. W. Walther* 186175, F. A. Crämer* 187591, R. Pieper* 18911914, R. D. Biedermann* 191421, H. A. Klein* 192235, H. B. Hemmeter* 19361945, G. C. Barth* 194552, W. A. Baepler* 195258, George J. Beto (b. 1916) 19591962, J. A. O. Preus (19201994) 196269, Richard J. Schultz (b. 1920) 197074, Robert D. Preus (19241995) 197489 (Suspended by Bd. of Regents), Norbert H. Mueller, interim pres. 198992, Robert D. Preus 199293 (Reinstated by Synodical Convention resolution) with Michael Stelmachowicz as C.E.O., David G. Schmiel 199395, Dean O. Wenthe 1996
See also Concordia Senior College, Luther Monuments.
H. Faith Ev. Luth. Sem., Tacoma, Washington, est. 1969 by Lutherans AlertNational (see World Confessional Lutheran Association); no syn. connection; recognized by the Evangelical* Luth. Fed. as its official school.
M. Lutheran School of Theol. at Chicago, Illinois, formed 1962 by completion of consolidation of Augustana* Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois (Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch.), Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem., Maywood, Illinois (est. 1891; ULC), Grand View Sem., Des Moines, Iowa (est. 1896; AELC), and Suomi Theol. Sem., Hancock, Michigan (est. 1904; Suomi Syn.); LCA Cen. Luth. Theol. Sem., Fremont, Nebraska (est. 1893; ULC/LCA) merged with the consolidated Chicago sem. 1966. Before to summer 1967 the Chicago sem. operated on campuses at Chicago, Rock Island, and Fremont. Full operations in Chicago began in fall 1967. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 9; Lutheran Church in America, V.
S. Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa. The school that became Wartburg Coll., Waverly, Iowa, and Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, began 1852 in Saginaw, Michigan, as a teacher training school (see Grossmann, Georg Martin); moved to Dubuque 1853; became a theol. sem. July 1854; to St. Sebald, Iowa, and called Wartburg 1857; to Mendota, Illinois, 1874; to Dubuque 1889; extension centers in Austin, Texas, and Denver, Colorado; The ALC Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska (est. 1884; UELC), united with Wartburg 1961. See also Anker, Kristian; Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 8.
T. Waterloo Luth. Sem., Waterloo, Ont., Can. See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 1.
XI. Foreign Seminaries Training Lutheran Ministers include:
Lutheran Training Institute, Monrovia, Liberia.
B. Asia and Australia.
Formation 1966 of the Luth. Ch. of Australia (see Australia, C 1) led to merger of Conc. Sem. (see Australia, B 2) and Immanuel Sem., both in Adelaide, on the site of Immanuel Sem., North Adelaide. The resultant school, Luther Sem., was dedicated March 3, 1968.
Universitas H. K. B. P. Nommensen, Pematangsiantar, Indonesia.
Faculdade de Teologia, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil.
D. England. Westfield* House, Cambridge. ELCE
E. Germany. Lutherische Theologische Hochschult, Oberursel (Taunus). SELK
Berkeley Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut (Episc.) 1854.
Church Divinity School of the Pacific, Berkeley, California (Episc.) 1893.
Colgate Rochester Divinity School/Bexley Hall, Rochester, New York (Interdenom.) 1817.
Goshen Biblical Sem., Elkhart, Indiana (Mennonite) 1894.
Hartford Seminary Foundation, The, Hartford, Connecticut (Interdenom.) 1834.
Harvard U. (Divinity School), Cambridge, Massachusetts (Nondenom.) 1636.
Howard U. (School of Religion), Washington, D. C. (Interdenom.) 1867.
Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wisconsin (Episc.) 1842.
Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California (Interdenom.) 1866.
U. of Chicago (Divinity School), Chicago, Illinois (Interdenom.) 1855.
Vanderbilt U. (Divinity School), Nashville, Tennessee (Interdenom.) 1875.
Yale U. (Divinity School), New Haven, Connecticut (Nondenom.) 1701.
XIII. RC Sems. The Council of Trent* (Sess. 23, Decree Concerning Reform, ch. 18) ordered that episc. sems. be est. to train priests. The Cong. of Sems. and Univs. administers theol. educ. in the RC Ch. except where rights of the Cong. for the Propagation of the Faith take precedence. Each diocese should have its own Sem. There are also sems. and houses of study of religious orders in Rome.
The Vatican II Decree on Priestly Formation (October 28, 1965), ch. 5, reads in part: Before beginning specifically ecclesiastical subjects seminarians should be equipped with that humanistic and scientific training which young men in their own countries are wont to have as a foundation for higher studies. It adds: The students are to be formed with particular care in the study of the Bible, which ought to be the soul of all theology.
XIV. The Future and Ministerial Educ. The upsurge of Biblical theology,* the ecumenical* movement, and the return to confessional sources have made an impact on contemporary theol. educ. Many sems. are strengthening their grad. schools to handle the onrush on post-BD students. New forms of training, e.g., the Urban Training Center in Chicago, Illinois, influence both the curriculum and institutional form of contemporary sems. Experimental methods of teaching have made inroads. Field work programs are expanding and entering new areas. Theol. sems will probably both mirror the life of the ch. and challenge the ch. with new forms of ministry.
R. L. Kelly, Theological Education in America: A Study of One Hundred Sixty-One Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (New York, 1924); O. A. Winfield, The Control of Lutheran Theological Education in America (Rock Island, Illinois, 1933); F. G. Gotwald, Theological Education in the Lutheran Church in the United States Prior to the Founding of Wittenberg College and Seminary in 1845, The Lutheran Quarterly, XLVI (1916), 82100; A. R. Wentz, History of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary (Philadelphia, ); C. F. Haussmann, Kunze's Seminarium (Philadelphia, 1917); T. C. Graebner, Concordia Seminary (St. Louis, ); C. V. Sheatsley, History of the First Lutheran Seminary of the West (Columbus, ); P. S. Vig, Trinitatis Seminarium (Blair, Nebraska, 1911); Zum jährigen Jubiläum des praktischen evang.-lutherischen Concordia-Seminars zu Springfield, Illinois, 184696 (St. Louis, 1896); T. Coates, The Making of a Minister (mimeographed; Portland, Oregon, ) and The European Background of the Missouri Synod Program of Ministerial Training, The American Lutheran, XXXIV, No. 11 (November 1951), 89, 18; C. S. Meyer, Log Cabin to Luther Tower (St. Louis, 1965); The Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools, AATS Directory 1964 (Dayton, Ohio, 1964); R. H. Bainton, Yale and the Ministry (New York, 1957); K. R. Bridston and D. W. Culver, Pre-Seminary Education (Minneapolis, 1965); G. E. Arden, The School of the Prophets: The Background and History of Augustana Theological Seminary 18601960 (Rock Island, Illinois, 1960); J. E. Roscoe, A Short History of Theological Education (London, ); W. W. Sweet, Religion in the Development of American Culture 17651840 (New York, 1952), pp. 173183; G. H. Williams, The Harvard Divinity School (Boston, 1954); W. A. Brown et al., The Education of American Ministers, 4 vols. (New York, 1934); Y. Allen, A Seminary Survey (New York, 1960); S. Simpson, Early Ministerial Training in America, Papers of the American Society of Church History, ed. S. M. Jackson, 2d Series, vol. 2 (New York, 1910), 117129; H. R. Niebuhr et al., The Advancement of Theological Education (New York, 1957); Toward a More Excellent Ministry, ed. R. R. Caemmerer and A. O. Fuerbringer (St. Louis, 1964); M. Kruse, Preparation for the Ministry: The Training of Pastors in Germany, Lutheran World, XI, No. 4 (October 1964), 470477; Seminary Education in a Time of Change, ed. J. M. Lee and L. J. Putz (Notre Dame, Indiana 1965). LJS, AMA, AOF, JEG.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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