(Melancthon; Melanthon; Schwar(t)zerd; Schwarzert; February 16, 1497April 19, 1560). B. Bretten, Lower Palatinate (Baden), Ger.; educ. Heidelberg and Tübingen; ed. classics and served as corrector in printery of Thomas Anshelm at Tübingen 1514; gained praise of D. Erasmus* for style 1515; became known as a humanist (see also Humanism, Sixteenth-Century German); wrote one of the prefaces to J. Reuchlin,* Clarorum virorum epistolae, engaged in subsequent controversy, and was cited in Epistolae obscurorum virorum (see Letters of Obscure Men); issued Gk. grammar 1518; recommended by Reuchlin for U. of Wittenberg and arrived there August 25, 1518; won by M. Luther* for the cause of theol.; abandoned plans to issue an edition of Aristotle; studied and taught theol. and other subjects; his lectures were attended by hundreds and sometimes outstripped Luther's in popularity. The movement of the Zwickau* Prophets and the Peasants'* War emphasized the need for an educ. program to implement the Luth. Reformation.* Melanchthon was prominent in devising methods and planning an educ. process incorporating classic languages and philos, as basic for specialized vocational studies. The princes were the patrons of the organized program of instruction. Melanchthon was prominent in the preparation of Articuli de quibus egerunt per visitatores in regione Saxoniae. Every parish in electoral Saxony was surveyed and religious and moral life supervised. Melanchthon strongly opposed H. Zwingli's* doctrine of the Lord's Supper at Marburg 1529. Guided by Luther, Melanchthon prepared the AC and the Ap (see also Lutheran Confessions, A 2, 3; B 3; C 1; Union Movements, 3).
In 1521 Melanchthon issued Loci communes rerum theologicarum sea Hypotyposes theologicae (variant titles: Loci communes theologici; Loci theologici; Loci praecipui theologici; see also Dogmatics, A 3); the 1535 and later eds. increasingly reflected synergism.* Melanchthon had a prominent role in formulating the Wittenberg* Concord. The Colloquy of Worms* further revealed Melanchthon's trend to concession, evident also in his approval of the Leipzig Interim (see Interim, II). But he joined others against A. Osiander* (14981552) in the Osiandrian* Controversy. RRC
See also Adiaphoristic Controversies; Bible Versions, M; Lutheran Confessions, A 5; Pack, Otto von; Philippists; Praeceptor Germaniae; Regensburg Conference; Synergistic Controversy; Visitations, Church.
G. Ellinger, Philipp Melanchthon (Berlin, 1902); H. Engelland, Melanchthon, Glauben und Handeln (Munich, 1931); K. Hartfelder, Philipp Melanchthon als Praeceptor Germaniae (Berlin, 1889); P. F. Joachimsen (Joachimsohn), Sozialethik des Luthertums (Munich, 1927); C. L. Manschreck, Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer (New York, 1958); Melanchthon on Christian Doctrine: Loci communes 1555, ed. and tr. C. L. Manschreck (New York, 1965); Melanchthon: Selected Writings, ed. E. E. Flack and L. J. Satre, tr. C. L. Hill (Minneapolis, 1962); W. Maurer, Der junge Melanchthon zwischen Humanismus und Reformation, 2 vols. (Göttingen, 1967, 1969); C. Schmidt, Philipp Melanchthon (Elberfeld, 1861); J. W. Richard, Philip Melanchthon, the Protestant Preceptor of Germany, 14971560 (New York, 1898); G. Kisch, Melanchthons Rechts- und Soziallehre (Berlin, 1967).
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