(18761901). B. East Orange, New Jersey; educ. Newark (New Jersey) Ger. Hosp., School of Nursing; Contract Nurse, US army in Cuba, during Span.-Am. War; in Philippines 190001; one of ca. 20 volunteers in Cuba bitten by mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and d. of the fever. Clara Maass Mem. Hosp., Belleville, New Jersey, named after her.
(18231900). Hist. of canon* law; b. Wismar, Ger.; lawyer N Ger.; RC 1851; prof. in Austria at Innsbruck, Graz, and Vienna. Opposed papal infallibility* but defended claims of RC Ch. in Kulturkampf.* Works include Pseudoisidor-Studien and the unfinished Geschichte der Quellen und der Literatur des canonischen Rechts im Abendlande bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters.
1. Of Alexandria (4th c. AD). Politicus; Egyptian hermit; retired to desert of Cellia at 40; regarded as miracle worker. 2. Of Egypt (ca. 300ca. 390). The Elder; the Great; native of Upper Egypt; at ca. 30 joined colony of monks in desert of Scete; ordained priest ca. 340; renowned as miracle worker. 3. Of Jerusalem (d. ca. 334 AD). Bp. Jerusalem ca. 312; opposed Arianism*; present at 325 Council of Nicaea.*
(Makowsky; 15881644). Ref. theol.; b. Lobzenic, Poland; studied at Danzig under B. Keckermann* and at Franeker in the N Neth.; prof. Franeker 161544; scholastic; opposed Jesuits, Socinians, and Arminians. Works include Collegia theologica; Loci communes theologici; Distinctiones et regulae theologicae et philosophicae.
(June 13, 1784June 21, 1846). B. near Uniontown, Fayette Co., Pennsylvania; Bap. preacher, Clark Co., Indiana: miss. to Indians in Wabash valley 1817; helped arrange for westward removal of Indians. Works include Remarks on the Practicability of Indian Reform: History of Baptist Indian Missions. See also Indians, American, 8.
(d. perhaps ca. 362 AD). Semi-Arian bp. Constantinople ca. 342; deposed 360 by a syn. at Constantinople (see also Acacius of Caesarea). Because he allegedly denied full deity of the Holy Spirit as well as of the Son, the Pneumatomachians* are called Macedonians, though Macedonius did not found the sect.
(18611933). B. Sauquoit, New York; ordained Presb. 1888, became Cong. 1899. Instr. and prof. ch. hist. Lane Theol. Sem., Cincinnati, Ohio, 188893; prof. ch. hist. 18931927, pres. 191726 Union Theol. Sem., NYC Tr. Church History of Eusebius; other works include A History of Christianity; Martin Luther.
(18811937). Fundamentalist theol.; b. Baltimore, Maryland; instr. 190614, asst. prof. 191429 Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; withdrew in protest against liberalisin; helped found Westminster Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1929; helped form Indep. Rd. for Presb. For. Missions, Inc., 1933: suspended from ministry 1935/36; helped organize Presb. Ch. of Am. 1936 (name changed 1939 to Orthodox Presb. Ch.). Works include The Origin of Paul's Religion; Christianity and Liberalism; The Virgin Birth of Christ. See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 d.
(14691527). B. Florence, It.; statesman; pol. philos.; deprived of office by Medici.* Developed a theory of govt. and practical statecraft that involved unscrupulous methods and gave rise to the term Machiavellianism. Works include Il Principe (The Prince).
(184990). B. Rhynie, Scot.; d. Uganda, Afr.; sent 1876 by CMS via Eanzibar to Uganda, which he reache 1878; opposed by RCs and Muslim. Known for work in Bible tr. into the vernacular of Uganda. See also Africa, F 1.
(18421921). B. Baltimore, Maryland; served in Confederate Army; Prot. Episc. priest 1866; held various rectorates. Works include Leo XIII at the Bar of History; The Problem of the Pentateuch; For God and Country.
(181272). B. Campbeltown, Argyll, Scot.; educ. Glasgow and Edinburgh; pastor Loudoun in Ayr, Dalkeith, Glasgow; chaplain to Queen Victoria 1857; cofounder Evangelical* Alliance; moderator Gen. Assem. of Ch. of Scotland. Ed. Christian Instructor and Good Words: other works include Character Sketches; Daily Meditations; Deborah; The Gold Thread.
(16701753). B. Barncachla, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scot.; educ. Edinburgh U.; minister Balmaghie 170127; sympathetic to Cameronians*; successfully resisted deposition 1703: 1st Cameronian minister 1706; helped found Ref. Presb. Ch. (first called Reformed Presbytery) 1743. See also Associate Reformed Church; Scotland, Reformation in. 1.
(Madison Agreement; Opgjör). As early as 1870 the Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8) sought unity through free conferences. In 1905 Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. (see Eielsen Synod) invited Norw. ch. bodies to hold discussions with possible union in view (see also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 13). Committees of the Norw. Syn., Hauge's Syn., and the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. agreed on the doctrine of absolution 1906, lay activity 1906, and the call and conversion 190708. Sharp disagreement developed beginning 1908 regarding the doctrine of election and predestination bet. the committees of the United Ch. and the Norw. Syn. In 1911 these 2 bodies elected new committees which adopted the Settlement at Madison, Wisconsin, 1912. Content:
1. The union committees of the Synod and the United Church, unanimously and without reservation, accept that doctrine of election which is set forth in Article XI of the Formula of Concord and in Pontoppidan's Sandhed til gudfrygtighed, Question 548.
2. Since both the conferring bodies acknowledge that Article XI of the Formula of Concord presents the pure and correct doctrine of the election of the children of God unto salvation as taught in the Word of God and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church, it is deemed unnecessary for church unity to set up new and more elaborate theses on this article of faith.
3. However, since it is well known that in presenting the doctrine of election two forms of doctrine have been used, both of which have won acceptance and recognition within the orthodox Lutheran Church,
some, in accordance with the Formula of Concord, include under the doctrine of election the whole order of salvation of the elect from the call to the glorification (Formula of Concord, Part II, Art. XI: 1324 [the original has '1020, ' acc. to Norw. ed. of Book of Concord by Johnson and Caspari]), and teach an election 'unto salvation through the sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth,'
while others, with Pontoppidan, in agreement with John Gerhard, Scriver, and other recognized teachers of the Church, define election more specifically as the decree concerning the final glorification, with faith and perseverance wrought by the Holy Spirit as its necessary presupposition, and teach that 'God has appointed all those to eternal life who He from eternity has foreseen would accept the offered grace, believe in Christ and remain constant in this faith unto the end'; and since neither of these two forms of doctrine, thus presented, contradicts any doctrine revealed in the Word of God, but does full justice to the order of salvation as presented in the Word of God and the confessions of the Church,
we find that this should not be cause for schism within the Church or disturb that unity of the spirit in the bond of peace which God wills should prevail among us.
4. Since, however, in the controversy over this question among us, there have appeared words and expressionsjustly or unjustly attributed to the respective partieswhich seemed to the opposite party to be a denial or to lead to a denial of the Confession,
we have agreed to reject all errors which seek to explain away the mystery of election either in a synergizing or a Calvinizing manner, in other words, every doctrine which either on the one hand would deprive God of His glory as only Savior or on the other hand would weaken man's sense of responsibility in relation to the acceptance or rejection of grace.
The Settlement rejected the doctrines (5 a) that the mercy of God and merit of Christ is not the only cause of election, (b) that election takes into account anything that man is or may do or omit to do as of himself and by his own natural powers, (c) that froth is in whole or in part a product of or dependent on man's choosing, power, or ability, (d) that faith is the result of an ability and power imparted by the call of grace, which therefore now dwell within and belong to the unregenerate heart, (6 a) that God acts arbitrarily and unmotivated in election, (b) that God's will regarding salvation is of 2 kinds, one revealed in Scripture, the other unknown and concerning only the elect, (c) that when resistance is removed in those who are saved and not in those who are finally lost, the cause of this different result lies in God, (d) that a believer can and shall have an absolute assurance of his election and salvation instead of an assurance of faith, (e) all doctrines concerning election which directly or indirectly would conflict with the order of salvation, and would not give to all a full and equally great opportunity to be saved.
The 3 conferring bodies resolved 1912 that the essential agreement concerning these doctrines which has been attained is sufficient for church union. Most of the Norw. Syn. agreed to the Madison Settlement. The minority, led by C. K. Preus* and I. B. Torrison,* requested 1. that Section 1 of the Madison Settlement be omitted; 2. that in Section 3 the reference to FC II [SD] XI read 120 instead of 1020; 3. that the end of Section 4 be changed from or on the other hand [would] weaken man's sense of responsibility in relation to the acceptance or rejection of grace to or on the other hand [would] weaken man's sense of duty in relation to the acceptance of grace and blame for the rejection of grace. The Union Committee found a formula agreeable to the merging bodies and to most of the Norw. Syn. minority in this: there is nothing in the request which is contrary to Scripture and the Confessions, and we regard the position taken in that document as a sufficient expression of unity in faith
Note. It is obvious that the above cited resolution must not be construed to mean that [the Madison] 'Agreement' as a basis for the union of the three contracting bodies thereby has been abridged or altered.
This Austin Agreement (Austin Settlement; 191617) takes its name from Austin, Minnesota, where agreement was reached. A minority of the minority disagreed with it and organized the Norw. Syn. of the Am. Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Evangelical Lutheran Synod).
The Union Documents of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, comp. and tr. G. M. Bruce (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1948); L. u. W., LVIII (1912), 222223, 511513, 562; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1966), pp. 232235.
Adopted 1875 by the majority of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States, to clarify its doctrinal position in view of const. changes made 1873. Held (1) the Iowa Syn. does not follow any school, but declares itself loyal to the Luth. Confessions, permits differences in theol. views only as long as the views are within confessional bounds, and repudiates doctrinal development (Fortentwicklung) which militates against the confessional basis; (2) by making the doctrines of the Confessions binding it is not changing position, since it had formerly not excluded any doctrine; (3) it adheres to the amended form of the doctrinal par. in the const. because it is simpler, less ambiguous, and less offensive; (4) it accepts the statements of the Luth. Confessions on the ministry, but regards the Missouri doctrine (without judging its correctness) neither as a confessional doctrine nor as a doctrine of faith and hence does not regard it as divisive; (5) it accepts the judgment of the Luth. Confessions regarding the antichristian character of the papacy but does not regard as an art. of faith the statement the pope is the Antichrist (as the final and complete fulfillment of the prophecy in 2 Th 2); (6) it acknowledges the doctrine of the Last Things as found in the AC but does not reject details from prophecy as long as they are in harmony with basic Luth. doctrines; (7) in the doctrine of Sunday the point concerning which the older Luth. dogmaticlans disagreed (whether 1 day of the week must be selected for worship in harmony with the order of creation) is not an art. of faith; (8) open questions is synonymous with nondivisive questions.
J. Deindörfer, Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von Iowa und anderen Staaten (Chicago, 1897); G. J. Fritschel, Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten (Chicago, n. d.).
(It. my lady). Term often used for picture, statue, or other artistic representation of Mary, mother of Jesus. In the earliest examples in the catacombs Mary has the Christ Child in her arms. In Byzantine art several types became prominent, including Panagia Nikopoia (Mary enthroned with Child seated on her knees), Hodegetria (Mary standing and holding Child in her left arm), Blacherniotissa (Mary praying, with Child on her breast), Platytera (variant of Blacherniotissa), Pelagoneotissa (Mary and Child seen from back).
In the Middle Ages the West developed greater freedom in portraying Mary in such types as Glykophilousa (Mary dressed as a noblewoman fondling Child); Galaktotrophousa (Mary nursing Child); Deesis (Mary, with John the Baptist, interceding at Last Judgment); Mother of Mercy (sheltering the faithful); Mother of 7 Sorrows (7 swords through heart); Mary of the Rose Garden; Virgin of Humility.
Later types include Madonna of the Rosary*; Immaculate* Conception; Annunciation (see Annunciation, Feast of the); Nativity; Assumption (see Assumption, Feast of the); Madonna of Lourdes*; Madonna of Fatima*; Pietà.*
1. A kind of pastoral or love poem. 2. A type of secular choral music which originated in the 14th c. and fl. 16th18th c. esp. in It., Fr., Eng., Ger., Neth., Den., and Sp. Early madrigals were motet-like, reflected contrapuntal skills, somewhat restricted freedom and spontaneity, helped pave the way for homophonic and harmonic music, and influenced development of the chorale* and Luth. ch. cantata.* Madrigals were written by Luths. such as L. Lechner,* H. L. v. Hassler,* Melchior Franck,* and T. Selle.* See also Byrd, William.
(Malrel Malruf; Maolruadha; Marcu; Marouf; Mulruny; 642722). Called Red Cleric, perhaps because of red hair and beard; trained at Comgall's center at Bangor, Nortern Ireland (see Celtic Church, 8); miss. to NW Scot. 671; est. a number of chs., a miss. center at Abercrossan (later Applecross, on the W shore of Applecross dist., Scot., E of Raasay Is. across the Inner Sound), and a chapel on the Isle Maree (probably named after him) in Loch Maree, a lake in Ross and Cromarty Co.; worked also in Skye and Sutherland.
(ca. 1525after ca. 1587). Brother of Johann Magdeburg*; b. Gardelegen, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; held various ecclesiastical and educ. positions; banished for refusing to comply with Interim*; with M. Flacius* Illyricus worked on Magdeburg* Centuries; spent last yrs. in Ger., Austria, Hung.; hymnist; composer. Hymns include Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut. See also Hymnody, Christian, 5.
Multivol. research by ev. scholars of Magdeburg and elsewhere, on initiative of M. Flacius* Illyricus, in sources of ch. hist. up to 1300 and its interpretation as a battle bet. truth and error. Called Centuries because of division of the work by centuries. First Lat. title: Ecclesiastica historia, integram Ecclesiae Christi ideam quantum ad locum, propagationem, persecutionem, tranquillitatem, doctrinam, haereses, ceremonias, gubernationem, schismata, synodos, personas, miracula, martyria, religiones extra Ecclesiam, et stature Imperii politicum attinet, secundum singulas centurias complectens congesta per aliquot studiosos et pios viros in urbe Magdeburgicae. A later title: Centuriae Magdeburgenses, seu historia ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, cum variorum theologorum continuationibus ad haec nostra tempora, quas excipient supplementa emendationum, defensionum, illustrationumque ad priores centurias XIII. See also Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals; Wigand, Johann(es).
Originally 1 of 6 tribes or castes into which, acc. to Herodotus (I 101), Medes were divided. Magi came into ascendancy 1st among Medes, later among Persians, by assuming priestly functions (a development similar to that of Brahmans in India; see Brahmanism): invested with functions of Zoroastrianism.* Wise men of Mt 2 probably were magi. See also Church Year, 2.
Alleged art of bringing about supernatural results by means of occult agencies, conjurations, and malevolent or benevolent incantations. Among primitive races magic and superstition play a significant role, as in voodooism.* Magic was practiced from ancient times in many countries. The Bible opposes magic; e.g., Ex 22:18; Acts 19:1319. See also Amulets; Primitive Religion.
(Petrus Magni; Peder Maansson; Peter Magnusson; d. 1534). B. Jönköping, Swed.; rector Vadstena; monk of Brigittine order, Vadstena; head of order 1511; bp. Västeraas 1524; ordained 3 bps. not approved by Rome 1528; ordained L. Petri* abp. 1531.
Perhaps of Finno-Ugrian and Turkish stock; originally lived along Ural Mountains. Toward the end of the 9th c. they appeared at the Danube and eventually settled in Pannonia; extended campaigns to N. Sea and It. Christianity had gained a foothold among them by ca. 1000. Chief ethnic group in Hungary* today.
(17991889). Cong. cleric and educ.; b. Vernon, New York; school teacher; educ. Hamilton Coll., Clinton, New York, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Seminary. Pastor Pittsford, New York; Cincinnati, Ohio. Pres. Oberlin (Ohio) Coll. 1835; Cleveland U. 1850. Returned to pastoral work in Michigan 1855. Ed. periodical The Divine Life: other works include Scripture Doctrine of Christian Perfection; Doctrine of the Will; The Science of Moral Philosophy; The System of Mental Philosophy.
Founded 1983 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; claims to be based on a subjective approach of ancient Vedic Science and to offer a solution to the problems of all govts. See also Transcendental Meditation; Vedic Religion.
(November 16, 1870January 22, 1966). B. Polkwitz, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1893; pastor Ogallala and Stark, Nebraska; sent 1901 to Brazil as successor of C. J. Broders* and Miss. Dir.; pres. Brazil Dist. 190410; instructor Conc. Coll., Pôrto Alegre 1907; returned to US 1914; served congs. in Nebraska and Kansas; retired 1942. See also Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, Districts of The, B 1.
(18651933). B. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; theol. and soc. reformer. Pastor Frankfurt am Main 1904; prof. practical theol. Berlin 1909. As mem. of cen. committee for inner missions gave special attention to sex ethics, alcoholism, and other soc. problems.
(Machu; 1480/90ca. 1541). Composer; employed ca. 1520ca. 1541 at court of Anna of Boh. and Hung. (150347; b. Prague; m. Ferdinand I 1521) and Ferdinand I (150364; b. Alcalá de Henares; king Hung. and Boh. 1526, Ger. 153164; Holy Roman emp. 155664); vice-kapellmeister under A. v. Bruck* 1529. Works, some pub. by G. Rhau,* include settings of Christ ist erstanden and Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott.
(17821854). B. Schilpario, near Bergarno, It.; paleographer and philol.; educ. Rome; Jesuit 1799; prof. classics Naples 1804; custodian (or scriptor) Ambrosian Library, Milan, 1813; left Jesuits 1819; Vatican librarian 1819; cardinal 1838. Issued 4 collections of theol. and classical texts: Classicorum auctorum e vaticanis codicibus editorum tomus I<[-X]; Scriptorum veterum nova collectio; Spicilegium romanum; Novae patrum bibliothecae tomus primus[decimus].
(October 4, 1893January 11, 1950). Luth. radio preacher, writer, educ.; b. Boston, Massachusetts An appeal at a miss. festival helped dir. him into the ministry. Educ. at the Conc. academy which was in process of establishment at Bronxville, New York, and which was later called Conc. Collegiate Institute; Boston (Massachusetts) U.; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts
First full-time ex. secy. The Walther League (see Young People's Organizations, Christian, II 3) 1920; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192244; Luth. Hour speaker (see Radio and Television Evangelism, Network, 57).
Other activities included: dean Lutherland resort, near Pocono Pines, Pennsylvania; cofounder Gamma Delta (see Students, Spiritual Care of, C 9); Luth. pastor for Ger. internees on Gallup's Is., Boston Harbor, for prisoners at Camp 1, Still River, Massachusetts, and for Camp Gordon, Atlanta, Georgia, in WW I; US Army consultant on educ. and religious affairs in Ger. 1947. Ed. The Walther League Messenger; other works include Day by Day with Jesus; For Better Not for Worse; The Book of Nahum; sermons; tracts. LEZ
The Dr. Walter A. Maier Memorial Booklet (issued by The Lutheran Laymen's League, St. Louis, Missouri, n. d.); P. L. Maier, A Man Spoke, a World Listened (New York, 1963); L. E. Zeitler, An Investigation of the Factors of Persuasion in the Sermons of Dr. W. A. Maier (unpub. STM thesis, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1956).
(161086). B. Nancy, Fr.; Jesuit 162682; educ. Rome; opposed Protestantism* and Jansenism*; defended Gallicanism*; forced out of Jesuits* by Innocent* XI. Wrote chiefly on the hist. of heresies and schisms; many works put on Index* of Prohibited Books. See also Seckendorf, Veit Ludwig von.
(Moses ben Maimon; also called Rambarn by acronym of Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; 11351204). Jewish scholar and philos.; b. Córdoba, Sp.; fled under persecution after Córdoba fell to Muslim 1148; lived in Morocco, Palestine, Egypt; tried to reconcile Rabbinic, or Talmudic, Judaism with Aristotelian philos, modified by Arab. interpretation. Works include expositions of the Jewish faith; commentary on the Mishnah (see Talmud).
1. Samuel Roffey (17921866). Grandfather of 2; b. London, Eng.; of Scot. descent. Works include monograph on Albigenses* and Waldenses*; The Dark Ages; Essays on Subjects Connected with the Reformation in England. 2. Frederic William (18501906). Grandson of 1; b. London, Eng.; prof. law Cambridge. Works include Roman Canon Law in the Church of England; The Anglican Settlement and the Scottish Reformation, Cambridge Modern History, II, pp. 550598; The Constitutional History of England.
(150274). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Wittenberg; friend of M. Luther*; school rector Magdeburg 152936; preacher 1537, prof. 154552 and 155374 Wittenberg; supt. Eisleben 1552. His involvement in Leipzig Interim* incurred the wrath of M. Flacius* Illyricus, N. v. Amsdorf,* N. Gallus,* et al., who accused him of denying the Luth. doctrine of justification. He denied the charge but taught that good works are necessary for salvation, later that they are necessary to retain faith; his phrases are repudiated by FC IV. He lived to see the overthrow of Crypto-Calvinists in electoral Saxony; Torgau arts. signed for him by P. Crell.* Works include Psalterium Davidis; Vitae patrum; commentaries on epistles of Paul. See also Majoristic Controversy; Regensburg Conference; Religious Drama, 3. AHH
(Gross; 15641654). B. Reinstädt, near Orlamünde, Ger.; diaconus Weimar; pastor and supt. 1605, later prof. theol. Jena. Coed. Das Weimarische* Bibelwerk, contributing commentary on Acts and 13 In; the hymn Ach Gott und Herr, wie gross und schwer, ascribed by some to M. Rutilius* or Johann Göldel (15561604; b. Altdorf, Ger.; pastor Dienstedt, near Kranichfeld, 1583), was 1st printed in a sermon by Major.
Controversy 155174 among Luth. theologians; named after G. Major.* Shortly. before he became supt. Eisleben 1552, Major was accused by N. v. Amsdorf* of denying the Luth. doctrine of justification in the Leipzig Interim.* After suspension from office Major replied that he had never doubted the sola* fide; but he defended the phrase good works are necessary for salvation, though he held that good works do not effect or merit forgiveness of sins, justification, the gift of the Holy Spirit, and eternal life. M. Flacius* Illyricus joined Amsdorf, N. Gallus,* et al. in opposing Major and holding that good works are not necessary for salvation, but are necessary for other reasons. Major modified his position 1553 to hold that good works are necessary not to obtain but to retain salvation.
J. Menius* came under suspicion of siding with Major 1554; in 1556 he held that beginning of new life in believers is necessary for salvation. He was attacked by M. Flacius Illyricus, suspended from office, and called before a syn. at Eisenach 1556, where he subscribed to 7 propositions on good works which could be interpreted as a repudiation of his former position.
In 1558 Major tried to end controversy with a confession on justification which stated that he had ceased using the controversial phrase because of wrong interpretation placed on it; but he continued to hold that he had never erred in his teaching of the Gospel or his understanding of good works. M. Flacius Illyricus demanded of Major unqualified rejection of the phrase. Major refused.
Amsdorf attacked Menius 1559, stating that good works are harmful for salvation; he meant that trust in good works for salvation is injurious.
The controversy was settled by FC IV, which rejected both Major's and Amsdorf's terminology but held that believers, in so far as they are reborn, spontaneously do good works commanded by God. AHH
C. Schlüsselburg, De Maioristis, Catalogus haereticorum, VII (Frankfurt, 1599); W. Preger, Matthias Flacius Illyricus und seine Zeit, I (Erlangen, 1859); G. L. Schmidt, Justus Menius, der Reformator Thüringens, II (Gotha, 1867).
Also called Thomas Christians. Christians in SW India who trace origin to the apostle Thomas on basis of apocryphal Acts of Thomas; perhaps of E Syrian origin; maintained connection with Nestorians (see Nestorianism); connected with Rome at Syn. of Diamper* as Malabar Uniat Ch.; broke with Rome 1653; divided 1662, some realigning with Rome, others with Jacobites (see Jacobites, 1). In 1930 Metropolitan Mar Ivanios with ca. 10,000 followers, formerly Jacobite, formed the Malankarese Uniat Ch. See also India, 57; Uniate Churches.
(17871864). B. Geneva, Switz.; educ. Geneva; pastor in Nat. Ch. of Geneva and at first in accord with its near-Unitarian character; pastor of separatist group in Geneva ca. 1820; hymnist; founded movement for better hymns in Fr. Ref. Church. Hymns include Non, ce n'est pas mourir (It Is Not Death to Die).
1. Fed. formed September 16, 1963, by Fed. of Malaya, state of Singapore, Sarawak, and Sabah (formerly N. Borneo); mem. Brit. Commonwealth and UN Area: ca. 127,300 sq. mi. Malays, Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, non-Malay indigenous peoples. Chief languages: Malay, Eng., Chinese, Tamil. Capital: Kuala Lumpur. Religious liberty granted; Islam dominant; other religions include Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Christianity, animism.
2. The name Malaya has been used to designate the Malay Peninsula, Brit. Malaya, and the Fed. of Malaya. Acc. to legend, the hist. of Malacca, the 1st Malay kingdom, begins ca. the middle of the 14th c. Captured 1511 by Port., who introd. Christianity; F. Xavier* was miss. there in the 1540s. Fell 1641 to the Dutch, who introd. Ref. Christianity but without miss. thrust. Ceded to Brit. 1824. W. Milne* was the 1st Prot. miss. in Malaya. The SPG entered Malaya 1848; the Presb. Ch. of Eng. 1851; Am. Meths. 1885, concentrating on schools. WW II interrupted miss. work; postwar work concentrated on New Villages. The Malayan Christian Council was organized 1948. The Council on Christian Literature for Overseas Chinese was est. 1951 with headquarters in Hong Kong.
3. Singapore, Rep. of. Island off S end of Malay Peninsula. Area: ca. 240 sq. mi. Formerly Brit. crown colony; full internal self-govt. 1959. Joined in Fed. of Malaysia 1963; withdrew 1965 and became an indep. rep. in the Brit. Commonwealth. Missions closely related to those of Malaya (see 2). The Soc. for the Promotion of Female Educ. in the East sent a worker to Singapore 1843. Trin. Coll., a theol. school est. 1948, is supported by Angls., Eng. Presbs., and Am. Meths. Singapore Theol. Sem. was founded 1952 by Chinese Christians.
4. Sarawak. Brit. protectorate 1888, occupied by Jap. in WW II, crown colony 1946; joined in Fed. of Malaysia 1963. Religion was mostly animist. CMS began work 1848. Am. Meths. began work 1901, organized the Sarawak Provisional Annual Conf. 1952; a Batak pastor began work among Dyaks 1938.
5. Sabah (former North Borneo). Brit. protectorate 1881; occupied by Jap. 194245; Brit. crown colony 1946; joined in Fed. of Malaysia 1963 as Sabah. Miss. work closely connected with that of Sarawak (see 4). The Basel Miss. Soc. was in N. Borneo before WW I. The Conservative Bap. For. Miss. Soc. (organized 1943; headquarters Wheaton, Illinois) resolved 1959 to enter N. Borneo.
(Malcolm Little; Big Red; Al Hajj Malik Shabazz; 192565). B. Omaha, Nebraska; his father was a Baptist preacher; to NYC; engaged in burglary; sentenced to 10 yrs. in prison 1946; used time for self-improvement; paroled after 6 yrs.; joined Black Muslims 1962; became prominent leader; suspended 1963; resigned 1964; founded Organization for Afro-American Unity 1964; conflict with Black Muslims resulted; assassinated.
In the Indian Ocean, SW of India. Area: ca. 115 sq. mi. Brit. protectorate since 1887; indep. as a sultanate 1965; rep. 1968. Ethnic groups: Dravidian, Sinhalese, Arab mixture. Language: Divehi (Sinhalese dialect). Religion: Sunni Moslem.
(Joannes; Juán [de] Maldonado; Maldonata; 1533 [1534?]1583). RC theol. and exegete; b. [Las] Casas de [la] Reina, Estremadura, Sp.; Jesuit 1562; prof. Collège de Clermont, Paris, 1564; attacked unsuccessfully as heretic by profs. of the Sorbonne 1574. Works include Commentarii in praecipuos sacrae scripturae libros Veteris Testamenti; Commentarii in quatuor Evangelistas.
Talks bet. Angl. and RC theologians at Malines (Mechelen; Mecheln; Mechlin[ia]), Belg. 192126. Agreed that the pope be given primacy of honor; that the Eucharist is a true mystical sacrifice; that Communion in both kinds is a matter of discipline, not dogma; that the body and blood of Christ are received in the Eucharist; that episcopacy is by divine right.
(18601947). Luth. bp. in Russ.; b. Reval (Tallin), Estonia; pastor St. Petersburg (Leningrad) 18911931; gen. supt. St. Petersburg territory 1916; elected bp. by the 1st gen. syn. of Russ. Evangelicals at Moscow 1924; head of sem. at Leningrad till its closing 1935; lived in Mainz 193647.
In Mediterranean sea. Area: ca. 122 sq. mi. Captured by Brit. 1799 and retained by them under the 1814 Treaty of Paris; indep. 1964; rep. 1974. Ethnic groups: Arab, Fr., Italian. Official Languages: Eng. and Maltese. Religion: mainly RC See also Middle East, A 5; Military Religious Orders, a.
(17661834). B. near Guildford, Surrey, Eng.; Angl. cleric; economist; prof. Haileybury Coll., near Hertford; held that human pop. tends to increase in a geometric ratio, means of subsistence in an arithmetic ratio. His views, called Malthusianism, led to the conclusion that propagation of the human race should perhaps be made subject to preventive controls; influenced the practice of birth control. See also Family Planning, 2.
Organized in Eng. 1861 by George R. Drysdale (18251904; physician; works include The Elements of Social Science) and Charles Bradlaugh (183391; ed. National Reformer) to advocate, defend, and provide information on birth control. Branches were est. in many countries. Disbanded 1927 because it considered its work completed.
1. Pedro de (ca. 150060). B. Burgos, Sp.; Dominican theol.; present at 154041 Colloquy of Worms,* 1546 Regensburg* Conf., and Council of Trent* 155152; helped prepare Augsburg Interim.*. Tomás (15661628). B. Játiva, or Játiba (formerly Xátiva), Sp.; Dominican exegete, dogmatician, ch. hist.; belonged to Sp. cong. of the Index* of Prohibited Books.
(Tullianum). Ancient prison in Rome under Ch. of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami; tradition identifies it as the place of imprisonment of Paul and Peter. Called Mamertine perhaps because of nearby temple of Mars Ultor (Mamertini: children of Mars) or from the name of an owner of the property; called Tullianum either by connection with Servius Tullius or from a non-extant Lat. word tullus, spring, indicating a well-chamber.
Science divides the study of man into physical anthropology, which deals with the essence and origin of physical (animal) characteristics, and cultural anthropology, which deals, e.g., with languages, inventions, customs.
Christian theol. studies man's origin (see Creation), 1st condition, probation, and apostasy (see Fall of Man), sin (see Sin; Sin, Original), and redemption (see Conversion; Grace; Justification), and related matters.
Luth. theol. begins the study of man with the study of God.* Proper and full understanding of man cannot be achieved through science, man's natural knowledge of God, or God apart from Christ. See also Anthropology.
(Mandeans; Mendaeans; from Mandaean Aramaic mandayya, having knowledge [reflecting Gk. gnostikoi, gnostics]. Sabians, Sabaeans, Sabeans, etc.; probably either from an Aramaic word meaning baptize or a Heb. word meaning host, referring to ritual washings or worship of the stars. Nasoraeans, Mandaean for observers [of cult and code] or true believers; cf. Nazarenes, Acts 24:5. St. John's Christians, so called because of veneration for John the Baptist). Gnostic sect; originated possibly as early as the 3d c.; remnants in Iraq and Iran. Sacred books include Ginza (Treasure) or Sidra rabba (the Great Book); Sidra d'Yahya(the Book of John) or Drase d'malke (Recitations of the Kings), also called Drase d'Yahya (Recitations of John); Qolasta (a hymnbook; cf. Syriac kullasa, praise). See also Sabianism.
(August 30, 1852September 13, 1933). Luth. theol.; b. Catawissa, Pennsylvania; educ. Missionary Institute, Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, and Pennsylvania College (see Gettysburg College). Pastor Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, 188189; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 188993. Supt. Missionary Institute and pres. Susquehanna U., Selinsgrove, 189395; head of deaconess motherhouse, Baltimore, Maryland; dean theol. dept. Susquehanna* U. Pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; 192226. Works include Present-Day Lutheranism; Lutheranism and Episcopacy; History of Susquehanna Synod.
(Manes; Manichaeus; ca. 216ca. 277). Founded Manichaeism.* Biographical details difficult to est.; b. perhaps Seleucia-Ctesiphon, Persia; allegedly received divine revelations; claimed to be the last and highest prophet; traveled probably to India and perhaps China; became acquainted with Buddhism*; returned to Persia; successfully opposed by Magi*; perhaps suffered a cruel death in prison.
(Manicheism; Manichaeanism; Manicheanism; Manicheeism). 1. Religion founded by Mani.*
2. Syncretistic, dualistic (see Dualism) philos. of nature, including Gnostic, Zoroastrian, and Christian elements. Held in gen. that the kingdom of light and kingdom of darkness were in conflict from eternity. Satan and his hosts, born of the kingdom of darkness, imprisoned elements of light that were later called Jesus patibilis (Jesus capable of suffering). This led to formation of the world by command of the God of light, in order to deliver the imprisoned light. Jesus impatibilis (Jesus incapable of suffering) came from the kingdom of light to lead his followers into strict asceticism and completely effect separation bet. light and darkness. The souls of the saved reach final blessedness in light; men's bodies and the souls of the lost fall victim to darkness. Conflagration consumes the world.
3. Manichaeism spread over the Roman Empire and was a menace to the ch. Augustine* of Hippo was Manichaean in his youth. Manichaeans and Manichaeism are referred to AC I 5; Ap XVIII 1; FC Ep I 17, 19, 22; II 8; SD I 26, 27, 30, 45.
A Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Man. and the NW Territories was organized 1897; name changed 1907 to The Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Man. and other Provinces. See also Canada, B 14; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 32.
(17961859). B. Franklin, Massachusetts; educ. Brown U., Province, R. I.; admitted to bar 1823; mem. Massachusetts House of Representatives and Senate; then active in field of educ., developing widespread awareness of the need for training teachers; mem. US House of Representatives 184853; pres. Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, Ohio.
(William; May 29, 1819-June 20, 1892). A leading theol. of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.; and one of its founders; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; to Pennsylvania 1845 on invitation of P. Schaff*; ordained 1846; asst. pastor of a Ger. Ref. cong.; asst. pastor Saint Michael's and Zion's Cong., Philadelphia, 185054, pastor 1854; pres. Pennsylvania Ministerium 186062, 1880; opposed Definite* Syn. Platform; prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, 1864. Works include Heinrich Melchior Mühlenbergs Leben und Wirken (Eng. title Life and Times of Henry Melchior Mühlenberg); Lutheranism in America; Ein Aufgang im Abendland: Mittheilungen aus der Geschichte der früheren evangelischen Missionsversuche unter den Indianern Amerikas; Das Buch der Bücher und seine Geschichte; Leben und Wirken William Penn's; Heilsbotschaft; A Plea for the Augsburg Confession, in Answer to the Objections of the Definite Platform.
See also Fraternal Address.
E. T. Mann, Memoir of the Life and Work of William Julius Mann (Philadelphia, 1839); A. Spaeth, D. Wilhelm Julius Mann, ein deutsch-amerikanischer Theologe: Erinnerungsblätter (Reading, Pennsylvania, 1895).
(180892). B. Totteridge, Hertfordshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained Angl. 1832; Tractarian; archdeacon Chichester; RC 1851 in reaction against the Privy Council judgment against G. C. Gorham*; priest 1851; ultramontanist; abp. Westminster 1865; advocated doctrine of papal infallibility* 1870; cardinal 1875; active in educ., soc., charitable work. Works include The Rights and Dignity of Labour; The Eternal Priesthood; Sin and Its Consequences. See also Metaphysical Society, The; Tractarianism; Ultramontanism.
(173891). B. Piscataway, New Jersey; educ. Coll. of New Jersey, Princeton (now Princeton U.) ; Bap. cleric and educ.; helped found R. I. Coll. at Warren (now Brown U., Providence, R. I.); helped organize Warren* Assoc.; urged adoption of fed. Const. by R. I. and other New Eng. states.
(182071). Metaphysician; b. Cosgrove, Northamptonshire, Eng.; influenced by W. Hamilton*; held that man cannot know God by reason or by intuitive approach. Works include The Limits of Religious Thought; The Philosophy of the Conditioned; Prolegomena logica.
(16921769). B. Lucca, It.; abp. Lucca. Ed. early vols. of Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio; other works include Tractatus de casibus, et excommunicationibus episcopis reservatis, confectus ad normam Tabellae Lucanae.
(18931958). B. Tynemouth-North Shields, Northumberland, Eng.; NT scholar. Prof. Mansfield Coll. (Cong.), Oxford, 193236; Manchester U. 193658. Works include The Teaching of Jesus; The Sayings of Jesus; The Old Testament in the Teaching of Jesus; The Church's Ministry; Ethics and the Gospel. See also Corporate Personality.
(17761848). B. Southampton, Eng.; educ. Winchester and Oxford; held various positions as cleric. Bp. Killaloe and Kilfenora, Ireland, 1820; Down and Connor 1823, and Dromore 1842. Hymnist. Coed. an ed. of the Bible with selected notes; other works include The Book of Psalms in an English Metrical Version; The Happiness of the Blessed; Poems; hymns include For All Thy Saints, O Lord.
Long purple mantle worn by lesser prelates of the papal court.
(162077). B. Lydeard St. Lawrence, Somersetshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; Presb. theol.; popular preacher London; scribe Westminster Assem. (see Presbyterian Confessions, 3); nonconformist*; imprisoned. Sermons influenced C. H. Spurgeon.*
In Hinduism, mythical 1st man; preserved from flood; father of postdiluvian people. The Code of Manu is a collection of Hindu laws, including rules for caste.
(Niklaus; Niclaus; Nicolas; Deutsch; original name may have been Alleman, changed anagrammatically to Manuel; ca. 14841530). B. Bern, Switz.; painter; wood carver; poet; dramatist; supported Reformation; critized world-liness of the papacy. See also Religious Drama, 3.
1. Old Testament. The original OT MSS are lost. Copies (rolls or scrolls, Jer 36:2; Lk 4:17), handwritten on parchment derived from clean animals, were made for private individuals and religious services. One large book (e.g., Is) or a combination of several small ones was written on a single roll. OT ;Heb. was originally written with consonants only, no punctuation marks, and perhaps no spaces bet. words. Division into pars. seems ancient. Proper pronunciation was orally preserved. Loss of Jerusalem as religious center of Judaism* made it necessary to add vowel points and accents to indicate and fix, as far as possible, proper reading and intonation. Another mark indicated verse division. These marks were gradually introd. under guidance of Masoretes (see Masora[h]). Extraordinary care was exercised in copying. There are practically no important textual differences. MSS used in synagogs met esp. rigid standards. A complete copy of Is and fragments of other OT books were discovered 1947 among the Dead* Sea Scrolls. Chap. divisions were marginally indicated at least as early as the 14th c.
2. New Testament.
a. NT autographs, written in nonliterary Hellenistic Gk. on parchment or papyrus* (2 Ti 4:13; 2 Jn 12), seem to have disappeared very early. But many copies were made. The writing was at first in majuscules (large letters [as capitals or uncials]), with no separation of words, no breathings, accents, or distinction of initial letters, and few, if any, punctuation marks.
b. There are many allusions to and quotations from Scripture in patristic writings beginning with the Apostolic* Fathers. The Muratorian* Fragment shows that there was an almost complete collection of apostolic writings ca. the middle of the 2d c.
c. The external hist. of the NT text for ca. 1,000 yrs. before the invention of printing can be traced by MSS Some MSS from the 4th5th c. include noncanonical writings. In course of time parchment (or vellum, a high-quality parchment) replaced papyrus and the book form replaced rolls. But since parchment was often scarce, old MSS were sometimes reused after the old writing was erased or washed off. Some Bible MSS were treated thus to make room for other writing. Such MSS are called codices palimpsesti (palimpsests) or rescripti. Chemicals and ultraviolet-ray photography have been used to determine the original text. See also Codex.
3. a. K. Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments (Berlin, 1963), pp. 2933, lists 76 papyrus MSS Of these, P52, in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, Eng., is the oldest, dated by Aland beginning of the 2d c. Of the Chester Beatty papyri (named after Alfred Chester Beatty ; b. NYC; educ. Princeton U.; mining engineer; industrialist; collector of Oriental MSS; naturalized Englishman 1933) Aland assigns P46 to ca. 200, P45 to the 3d c., P47 to the end of the 3d c.; they contain large portions of the gospels, Acts, the Pauline epistles, and Rv Of the Bodmer papyri (named after Martin Bodmer [b. 1899], Swiss industrialist, who secured them for his private library in Cologny, near Geneva, Switz.) Aland assigns P66 (large portions of Jn) to ca. 200, P75 (Lk and Jn) to the beginning of the 3d c.
There are ca. 250 4th10th c. uncials. The most important: Codex Sinaiticus (�), complete NT, 4th c., discovered (1844 and 1859) by L. F. K. v. Tischendorf* in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, formerly in St. Petersburg (Leningrad), since 1933 in the Brit. Museum, London; Codex Vaticanus (B), 4th c., in Vatican Library, Rome; Codex Alexandrinus (A; called Alexandrinus from its supposed origin at Alexandria, Egypt), 5th c., in the Brit. Museum; Codex Ephraemi (C; called Ephraemi because some writings of Ephraem* were superimposed on the text), 5th c., rewritten upon probably in the 12th c., in Bibliothèque National, Paris, Fr.; Codex Bezae (D; named after T. Beza*), 5th or 6th c., in University Library, Cambridge, Eng..
b Beginning in the 9th c. the uncial form of writing changed to the cursive, or minuscule, of which there are many MSS There are perhaps ca. 200,000 variant readings in NT MSS, depending on how the count is made, but in nearly all cases the correct reading is not hard to est., and in nearly all other cases the variants are of no importance as affecting the sense. EL, FWD
(Mantz; ca. 150027). Anabap. leader in Zurich, Switz.; probably received humanist educ.; broke with H. Zwingli* in matters regarding the ch., infant baptism, and govt.; condemned, and drowned in the Limmat R.
(18751950). Luth. theol., educ., ch. leader. B. Hanover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen and Erlangen; dir. Erichsburg theol. sem. 190920; supt. Einbeck 1920; gen. supt. Stade 1922; bp. Ev. Luth. nat. ch. (Landeskirche) Hannover 192547; chm. Allgemeine* Ev.-Luth. Konferenz 1933; pres. LWC 193545. Worked for ch. rights in Kirchenkampf*; popular as pastor pastorum, but criticized for yielding too much to the state, esp. in agreeing to exclude non-Aryans from cong. life of the Deutsche* Evangelische Kirche 1941.
(Marbecke; Merbeck[e]; ca. 1510ca. 1585). Calvinist theol.; musician; b. probably Windsor, Eng.; organist St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 1541; condemned for heresy 1543; received royal pardon. Ed. The Booke of Common Praier noted; other works include a concordance to the Eng. Bible (see also Concordances, Bible).
(ca. 14951556). Mediating Anabap. leader in S Ger.; b. Rattenberg, Tyrol, Austria; first inclined toward Lutheranism; joined Anabaps. 1527; fled to Strasbourg 1528; worked there in connection with lumbering and mining till 1532; traveled extensively; engineer of wells in Augsburg 154456.
(ca. 325/335410 or 411). Of noble Roman family; after death of husband devoted herself to charitable works, study, asceticism; her home on Aventine Hill, Rome, was a center of Christian influence. MPL, 22, 108795.
(Markellos; ca. 280ca. 374). Bp. Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey); repeatedly condemned by some, acquitted by others, of alleged Sabellianism (see Monarchianism, B 6), beginning with a council at Constantinople in the 330s; followers, called Marcellians, condemned by 2d ecumenical council of Constantinople.*
(18161909). B. Millbury, Massachusetts; educ. Yale Coll. and Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut; pastor Presb. and Cong. chs. in New Eng. and Pennsylvania; hymnist. Hymns include Hark! the Voice of Jesus Crying.
(original name Marcus Annius Verus; after 139 Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus; 121180). Roman emp. 161180; Stoic philos.; b. Rome; adopted by Antoninus Pius; emp. with Lucius Aurelius Verus (original name Aelius Aurelius Commodus; son of Lucius Ceionius Commodus [d. 138]; 130169; b. Rome; adopted by Hadrian and by Antoninus Pius) 161169; sole emp. 169; probably supported the persecutions of Christians that occurred in his reign. Works include Meditations. See also Ethics, 3; Persecution of Christians, 3.
(Maraesius; des Marets; Des Maret; Desmarets; 15991673). Ref. theol. and polemicist; b. Oisemont, Picardy, Fr.; educ. Paris, Saumur, Geneva; held various pastorates; prof. Sedan, 's Hertogenbosch, Groningen; defended infralapsarianism* against G. Voet*; opposed Cartesianism* and federal* theol. Works include Collegium theologicum, sive systema breve universae theologiae.
(Marguerite; Margaret of Angoulême [or of Orleans, or of Valois]; 14921549). Sister of Francis I (see France, 8); queen of Navarre 154449; supported Reformation.
(17801846). Prot. theol. and hist.; b. Hildesheim, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; prof. Erlangen, Heidelberg, Berlin; held the speculative view of K. Daub* and G. W. F. Hegel*; equidistant from orthodox Lutheranism, rationalism, and old supernaturalism.
(1536ca. 1624). B. Talavera de la Reina, Sp.; Jesuit 1554; taught theol. in Rome, Sicily, Paris; held that royal authority derives from sovereignty of people, that bps. are also to dir. activities of the state, and that tyrants could be forced to obey laws and even be murdered.
(Marianas; Ladrone Is.). Group of is. in Micronesia.* Area (including Guam*): ca. 450 sq. mi.; discovered 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 14801521; Port. navigator); originally called Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of the Robbers); name changed to Las Marianas 1668 in honor of Mariana of Austria (163496), widow of Philip IV of Sp. (160565; king of Sp. 162165); sold (except Guam) by Sp. to Ger. 1899; Jap. mandate 1919; trust territory (except Guam) assigned by UN to US 1947. RCs were the first Christian missionaries on the islands (17th c.). ABCFM and Bap. missionaries came early in the 20th c.
(Societas Mariae; Society of Mary; not to be confused with Marists*). RC cong. founded Bordeaux, Fr., 1817/18 (recognized by pope 1865, 1891) by Guillaume Joseph Chaminade (17611850) to oppose religious indifference; besides vowing poverty, chastity, and obedience, mems. vow stability in service of Mary; devoted to educ. Daughters of Mary (Marianist Sisters; Cong. of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate; Filiae Mariae), a Marianist offshoot, was founded 1816 Agen, Fr.
1. Psalterium Mariae magnum. The Psalter adapted to the cult of Mary (see Mariolatry). Ascribed by some, perhaps falsely, to Bonaventura.* Each of the 150 Psalms in it begins with wording similar to that in the Scriptural Psalms, but Mary-oriented; the remainder often echoes other Psalms and other parts of the Bible. Included in M. Chemnitz,* Examen Concilii Tridentini, Part III, in the section on the invocation of saints. Ps. 1, e.g., reads: Blessed is the man who loves your name, virgin Mary; your grace will strengthen his soul. Like a tree watered by fountains of waters, he will bring forth very abundant fruits of righteousness [or justice]. Blessed [are] you among women because of the humility and simple faith of your heart. For you excel all women in physical beauty. You exceed the angels and archangels in excellent holiness. Your mercy and your grace are proclaimed everywhere. God has blessed the works of your hands. Hail Mary etc.
2. The rosary.*
Polish sect founded 1906 by priest Jan Kowalski and Felicja Kozlowska (Maria Franziska; Franciscan tertiary [see Franciscans]; 18621921) after excommunication from RC Ch.; assoc. with Old* Catholics 190924; emphasizes devotion to Mary, ascetic practices.
Teaching about Mary, mother of Jesus.
Many hold (on basis of Lk 1:32; 3:2338; Ro 1:3; 2 Ti 2:8; Acts 2:30) that Mary was a descendant of David. Jesus was conceived in her by the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit and was born of her. The Bible does not say whether or not she had other children. She appears only briefly in accounts of her Son's later life (e.g., Lk 2:4152: Jn 2:111; Mt 12:4650; Jn 19:2527) and Acts 1:14.
In the early Christian cents. Mary received comparatively little attention. But as Christological* controversies developed, she was increasingly recognized, esp. in the E; the 431 Council of Ephesus* adopted a letter of Cyril* of Alexandria which calls her mother of God. Many legends about her also arose. In the 4th and 5th cents. devotion to her increased rapidly. The 787 Council of Nicaea* stated: We honor and salute and reverently venerate the image of our spotless Lady the all-holy mother of God.
In the early Christian cents. only a few feast days honored Mary (e.g., Annunciation, March 25; Purification [Presentation], February 2); the Middle Ages saw a sharp increase in the number of days devoted to her.
Devotion to Mary was modified by the Luth. Reformation.* For many yrs. M. Luther* held that Mary had been conceived without sin (WA 4, 559; 17 II, 409; 31 II, 689). But later he held that it was at Christ's conception that she was totally purged of sin (WA 39 II, 107). He held that she remained a virgin in childbirth (WA 40 Illinois, 680) and for the rest of her life (WA 48, 579). Throughout his life Luther insisted that she is the mother of God (WA 7, 545: 36, 60; 10 II, 407). In 1522 he urged that one pray the Ave Maria but omitted Pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death (WA 10 II, 407409). For Luther, Mary was queen of Heaven, but he warns against making that name say too much (WA 7, 573).
The Book* of Concord refers to Mary as blessed (AC III 1), pure, holy, and ever-virgin (SA-I 4), who is most worthy of the most ample honors (Ap XXI 27) and is rightly called and truly is the mother of God (FC Ep VIII 12). Granted that blessed Mary prays for the church (Ap XXI 27), yet Scripture does not teach the invocation of saints (AC XXI 2). See also Mariolatry; Theotokos.
As a result of Pietism,* rationalism,* and Prot. sectarianism, the esteem in which 16th c. Luths. held Mary nearly disappeared in many areas, though she is commemorated in most Luth. service books on the Feasts of the Annunciation* (March 25), Presentation of Our Lord and Purification of Mary (February 2), and Visitation (July 2). See also Church Year, 13, 16.
See also Rorate Masses.
M. Luther, The Magnificat Translated and Expounded, tr. A. T. W. Steinhaeuser, Luther's Works, XXI, ed. J. Pelikan (St. Louis, 1956), 295358; H. D. Preuss, Maria bei Luther (Gütersloh, 1954); M. Thurian, Mary Mother of All Christians, tr. N. B. Cryer (New York, 1963); W. Tappolet, Das Marienlob der Reformatoren (Tübingen, 1962); H. Asmussen, Maria die Mutter Gottes (Stuttgart, 1950); R. Laurentin, The Question of Mary, tr. I. G. Pidoux (New York, 1965); Maria in Liturgie und Lehrwort, ed. P. T. Bogler (Maria Laach, 1954). EFP
(Society of Mary; Marist Fathers; not to be confused with Marianists*). RC cong. founded by Jean Claude Courveille (17871866) and Jean Claude Marie Colin (17901875). The first group formed 1816 at Lyons, Fr.; approved by Rome 1836. Mems. meditate on the personality of Mary and are devoted to missions. Colin's request for approval of a 4-branched soc. (priests, brothers, religious sisters, 3d order) was refused by Rome. As a result, 4 indep. congs. developed: Marist Fathers (with Marist 3d Order attached); Marist Brothers (Little Brothers of Mary; founded 1817 near Lyons); Marist Sisters (Sisters of the Cong. of Mary; founded 1817 Cerdon, Ain, Fr.); Marist Missionary Sisters (Miss. Sisters of the Soc. of Mary; founded 1845 Saint-Brieuc, Fr.). See also Champagnat, Marcellin Joseph Benoîit.
Egyptian Melchite (see Melchites) liturgy attributed by some to St. Mark, by others to Cyril* of Alexandria. Abandoned by Egyptian Melchites in gen. ca. 12th/13th c. in favor of the liturgy of Constantinople. Survived in modified form among Coptic Monophysites* and Abyssinians (see Ethiopic Church).
(Eugenicus; ca. 13911445). Pupil of G. Gemistos* Pletho(n); monk; metropolitan of Ephesus. Most of his works oppose doctrines of the Lat. ch. and 1439 resolutions of the Council of Florence.* MPG, 160, 10711104.
(Marloratus; du Pasquier; 150662). Ref. theol.; b. Bar-le-Duc, Fr.; friend of T. Beza*; pastor in Crissier (near Lausanne and Vevey, Switz., and Rouen, Fr.; took part in Colloquy of Poissy*; executed when RCs conquered Rouen. Works include Novi Testamenti catholica expositio ecclesiastica.
(Philipp; Philips; ca. 153898). Baron St. Aldegonde; b. Brussels; educ. Louvain, Paris, Dôle, and Geneva; friend of J. Calvin* and T. Beza*; statesman, soldier, theol.; played major role in advancing Ref. theol. in Neth.; resisted Inquisition*; advised William* I in struggle for Neth. indep. Tr. Psalms into Flemish.
Syrian Uniate ch., chiefly in Lebanon; name perhaps derived from Maro(n) (Maroon; d. ca. 410), a hermit to whom a monastery on the Orontes in N Syria was dedicated; probably originated in 7th c. ;controversy over Monothelitism*; in union with Rome since 13th c.; played a significant role in modern Lebanese politics.
(Père; 163775). Jesuit miss. and explorer; b. Laon, Fr.; d. near present Ludington, Michigan; sailed for Can. (then called New Fr.) 1666; reest, miss. Sault Sainte Marie 1668; accompanied Louis Jolliet (16451700) on voyage down Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers to mouth of Arkansas R. 1673.
I. History. In the OT it is implied that marriage is an expression of the will of God (e.g., Gn 2:1824). Religious instruction was a distinctive feature of the home (Dt 6:69). OT prophets abundantly defend sexual purity and domestic virtue. Blessings of marriage and evils of impurity are often used figuratively (e.g., Rv 21:2; Ex 34:1516).
Monogamy was considered ideal in the OT (Gn 2:24; Pr 31:1031), but there is no OT prohibition of polygamy,* which persisted well into the Christian era and is not forbidden in the NT but conflicts with the NT ideal of monógamy (1 Ti 3:2, 12; Tts 1:6; cf. Jn 4:18).
In the first Christian cents. the view developed that virginity and celibacy* were superior to marriage. Marriage had only a physical basis, and to marry was only to choose the lesser of 2 evils (wedlock or fornication). But by the 15th c. marriage was spoken of as a sacrament and was so confirmed by the Council of Trent* (Sess. XXIV, Doctrine of the Sacrament of Matrimony, Canon 1).
M. Luther's* views on marriage developed gradually and against varying backgrounds. Hence contradictory statements may be found in his writings. In gen., his earlier writings emphasize a strong naturalism in his approach to marriage; his later, more mature writings emphasize a spiritual conception. His cen. teaching, salvation by faith alone, was normative. In his approach to the subject he tried to be Scriptural. Freedom of the individual, faith, and conscience were vital considerations. Luther held that the normal sex urge is imperious and cannot be escaped, but he pleaded for self-control.
On the spiritual side Luther regarded marriage as an obedience of faith which lifts marriage above its gross naturalism. He wrote beautiful passages on marriage, and his home life is regarded as ideal (see Luther, Family Life of).
Marriage had been under ch. control. Luther held that it should be under state control, but that religious features might be connected with the wedding (WA 30 III, 74). Luther also held that a Christian might marry an unbeliever, even a Turk.
Historically, several steps developed in marriage procedure. They often depended on soc. conditions and special circumstances (cf. Gn 2:1825; 11:29; 24:6167). Soon there were 2 steps: agreement (engagement) and consummation (assoc. with a marriage feast). After the exile the custom of drawing up and sealing a contract came into vogue (Tob 7:14).
At first the ch. did not concern itself with control of matrimony or its process. Gradually the RC Ch. took control, made marriage a sacrament (see above), and demanded that it must occur under RC auspices, restricted it, and regulated the process in various ways. Luther and the Luth. Confessions protested against this (Tractatus, 77; see also above). Usual acts of marriage: consent of 2 eligible persons to live in matrimony (the only step in common-law marriage); meeting legal requirements (license, etc.); legally recognized ceremony.
II. Definition and Principles. A. L. Graebner* defined the state of marriage, or wedlock, as the joint status of one man and one woman, superinduced and sustained by their mutual consent to be and remain to each other husband and wife in a lifelong union for legitimate sexual intercourse, the procreation of children, and cohabitation for mutual care and assistance (TQ, VIII, 1 [January 1903], 34).
The marriage relationship is holy. Marriage is the usual state for the average adult, both from the soc. and from the hygienic standpoint. Children are a gift of God (Ps 127:3). The family is the fundamental unit of the nation.
Luths. in Am. have usually advocated engagement, as a rule with consent of parents, as prelude to marriage. Marriage is a natural right and therefore cannot be forbidden to those eligible. The real affection of married people is a creation and gift of God that cannot be set aside by absolute commands. Engagement has been regarded as a sacred promise that must not be lightly made or lightly broken.
Acc. to Scripture, marriage has a 3-fold purpose: companionship and mutual help; procreation; and, since the fall of man into sin, avoidance of fornication (Gn 1:28; 2:1824; 1 Co 7:2). Refusal of sexual intercourse is denial of aright and neglect of a duty assumed by marriage acc. to Gn 2:24; 1 Co 7. It has been regarded as a form of malicious abandonment.
Marriage is intended by God to be lifelong (Mt 19:6; Mk 10:9; Ro 7:2; 1 Co 7:39). It is immaterial whether the one or the other spouse, acc. to the regular course of nature, later becomes impotent or, as result of disease, becomes incapable of performing the prime duties of marriage. Mutual care and assistance become more prominent in course of time.
III. Incidentals. Clandestine engagements are those made without parental knowledge. Marriage banns (pl. of ban, authoritative proclamation) originated in medieval times and are still pub. in some chs.; they announce the intention of persons to marry, giving opportunity for anyone to show just cause why the marriage should not take place. Common law marriage is the living together of a man and a woman as husband and wife, and with such intent, without legal or ecclesiastical marriage ceremony (see also I). State laws now gen. demand a physical examination, marriage license, and legally recognized marriage ceremony. Artificial insemination with seed other than that of the husband is gen. opposed by Christians. On basis of Gn 1:2728; 2:2124; Ro 1:2627 Christians oppose homosexual marriage.
Divorce. Acc. to Mt. 5:32; 19:9, a man who divorces his wife except for porneia (Gk. fornication; unchastity) causes (Gk. poiei, Mt 5:32) her to be stigmatized as adulterous. Jesus does not say that failure in marriage, even because of fornication, must be followed by divorce; nor does He say that there may be no divorce for fornication. Malicious abandonment (1 Co 7:15) is the willful breaking of the marriage bond by deliberate separation. A Christian is not bound in such cases, 1 Co 7:15. This has been interpreted to mean that a Christian suffers a marriage break, i. e., he submits to it, when such circumstances make it impossible for him to keep his marriage intact. The NT ideal is that marriage should end only with death (Ro 7:23). Cf. also Mk 10:1112; Lk 16:18. JHCF HGC
G. E. Howard, A History of Matrimonial Institutions 3 vols. (Chicago, 1904); E. A. Westermarck, The History of Human Marriage, 5th ed., 3 vols. (New York, 1922); G. E. Lenski, Marriage in the Lutheran Church (Columbus, Ohio, 1936); W. A. Maier, For Better, Not for Worse, 3d, rev. ed. (Saint Louis, 1939); O. A. Geiseman, Make Yours a Happy Marriage (St. Louis, 1946); J. T. Landis and M. G. Landis, The Marriage Handbook (New York, 1948); L. M. Epstein, Marriage Laws in the Bible and the Talmud (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1942); E. R. Groves and G. H. Groves, The Contemporary American Family (Philadelphia, 1947); R. E. Baber, Marriage and the Family, 2d ed. (New York, 1953); E. W. Burgess and P. Wallin, Engagement and Marriage (Philadelphia, 1953); D. R. Mace, Hebrew Marriage (London, 1953); Engagement and Marriage: A Sociological, Historical, and Theological Investigation of Engagement and Marriage, ed. Family Life Committee of the Bd. for Parish Educ. of LCMS (St. Louis, 1959); O. A. Piper, The Biblical View of Sex and Marriage (New York, 1960); Sex and the Church: A Sociological, Historical, and Theological Investigation of Sex Attitudes, ed. Family Life Committee of the Bd. for Parish Educ. of LCMS (St. Louis, 1961); H. Thielicke, The Ethics of Sex, tr. J. W. Doberstein (New York, 1964); Family Relationships and the Church: A Sociological, Historical, and Theological Study of Family Structures, Roles, and Relationships, ed. Family Life Committee of the Bd. for Parish Educ. of LCMS (St. Louis, 1970).
Marriage is often defined as a contract; but it is also more than a contract: it is a change of status, or condition. It is the complete performance of a prior contract to marry. For a valid contract of this kind, also called engagement, the parties must be competent, there must be agreement, the consent must be genuine, i. e., free from fraud, duress, or mistake, and the agreement must be free from illegality. The express contract, or promise to marry, is proved, like other contracts, by the express words of the parties or by circumstantial evidence from their conduct, though explicit words have not been spoken.
Formal requisites of marriage are fixed by law. They usually include marriage license, performance of a marriage ceremony by a magistrate or cleric, and return of the license with evidence that the marriage has been solemnized. Certain factors or conditions make a marriage voidable or void. A marriage before the age of consent, as fixed by law, is valid until voided. Persons below legal age must have consent of parents or guardians in a manner acknowledged by law in order to make their marriage valid. Marriage of insane persons is void. Impotence in itself is no bar to marriage, but if marital intercourse is impossible because of an incurable defect, marriage may be annulled.
Relationship of affinity or consanguinity (see also Impediments) is gen. regulated by law, each state specifying in which degrees of relationship marriage is prohibited. The tendency has been toward making regulations stricter (e.g., to require  a waiting period bet. application for and issuance of licenses and  blood tests and other examinations). AJCM
R. V. Mackay, Law of Marriage and Divorce Simplified, 2d ed. by I. Mandell (New York, 1954); J. W. Morland, Keezer on the Law of Marriage and Divorce, 3d ed. (Indianapolis, 1946); M. Weinberg, 1959 Cumulative Supplement to Keezer on the Law of Marriage and Divorce, Third Edition (Indianapolis, 1959).
M. Luther* was influenced by Christian marriage ceremonies of the late Middle Ages. In Ein Traubüchlein für die einfültigen Pfarrherr (1529) he divided the rite into (1) pub. of banns (see Marriage, III), (2) marriage proper in front of the church, (3) benediction by God's Word and prayer before the altar. This order for solemnizing marriage was gen. accepted as fundamental. The text and basic order remained even when the whole ceremony took place at the altar. But many ch. orders then placed the lessons first, followed by the marriage ceremony proper, prayers, and benediction. Luths. in Am. use many different, but basically similar, marriage ceremonies.
(181158). B. Church Lawford, near Rugby, Eng.; Angl. cleric; disciple of J. H. Newman*; assoc. with Oxford* Movement; with E. B. Pusey* and J. Keble* produced A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church.
(16881753). Descendant of noble Huguenot family in Paris, Fr.; became hermit at Schwarzenau and Berleburg, Ger.; contracted spiritual marriage with Clare Elisabeth von Callenberg (16751742); followed mysticism of Guyon.*
(17641838). Angl. miss.; b. Horsforth, near Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng.; d. Windsor, New S. Wales, Australia; educ. Cambridge; ordained 1793; to Parramatte, near Sydney, Australia, as chaplain of penal colony, 1794; returned to Eng. 1807 to report and solicit aid; returned to New S. Wales 1809; sought miss. aid for New Zealand with little success; made 7 voyages to New Zealand 181437 to work among natives.
(17571839). B. London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge, Eng., and Güttingen and Leipzig, Ger.; prof. Cambridge 1907; bp. Llandaff, Wales, 1816 and Peterborough, Eng., 1819; brought Ger. critical methods to Eng. by tr. J. D. Michaelis,* Einleitung in die göttlichen Schriften des Neuen Bundes (Eng. title Introduction to the New Testament); opposed Calvinism. Other works include The History of the Politicks of Great Britain and France; A Comparative View of the Churches of England and Rome.
(17941842). Cong. minister; b. Hartford, Vermont; educ. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, N. H., and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; pres. U. Vermont 182633; romanticist; influenced transcendentalists. Ed. S. T. Coleridge,* Aids to Reflection; tr. J. G. Herder,* Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie (Eng. title The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry).
Archipelago of atolls and reefs in W Pacific Ocean. Area (land): ca. 66 sq. mi.; formerly Ger., controlled by Jap. after WW I; US trust territory 1947. Early miss. work by ABCFM (1857) and Hawaiian Ev. Assoc. Predominant religion: Christianity. See also Micronesia.
(17681837). Father of J. C. Marshman*; b. Westbury Leigh, Wiltshire, Eng.; d. Serampore, India; weaver till 1794; later studied Lat., Gk., Heb., Syriac; 1799 sent with others, including W. Ward,* by Baptist* Miss. Soc. to join W. Carey* in India; because of Brit. E. India Co. opposition, landed at Dan. Serampore, near Calcutta, 1799. Wrote on Chinese language and grammar; other works include tr. of parts of the Bible into Chinese. See also Serampore Trio.
(Marsiglio dei Mainardini; ca. 1290ca. 1343). It. philos. and scholar. Prof. Paris 1311, rector 1313. With John* of Jandun wrote Defensor pacis, a treatise against temporal power of papacy; excommunicated 1327 by John XXII (see Popes, 13). See also Christian Church, History of the, II 3; Councils and Synods, 7.
(180884). Dan. Luth. theol.; b. Flensburg, Ger., near Dan. border; prof. Copenhagen, then court preacher; bp. Zealand (Sjaelland) 1854; marked by speculative-mystic tendency. Works include Den kristelige dogmatik; Den kristelige etik. See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 9.
(Mar Thomites). A Syrian ch. in India; broke away as a reforming group from the Jacobites (see Jacobites, 1) beginning in the 1870s, maintaining an episcopacy with local consecration. See also India, 6, 7; Nonchalcedonian Churches, 2.
(18551925). B. Bubendorf, canton Basel, Switz.; OT scholar; pastor; prof. Bern; exponent of historicocritical* method of J. Wellhausen.* Ed. Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament: Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 190723.
(16471717). Benedictine exegete, patrologist, textual critic. Wrote on life and works of Jerome; tried to reconstruct Heb. text used by Jerome for the Vulgate.
(5th c.). Lat. writer of N Afr. Works include Satyricon (or Satyra; or De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii et de septem artibus liberalibus), an encyclopedia of contemporary culture which tried to classify human intellectual enterprise. See also Quadrivium; Trivium.
(August 9[8?], 1835May 18, 1921). B. Budershausen, Bav., Ger.; educ. Hamilton Coll. (Clinton, New York) and Hartwick* Sem.; pastor Middleburg, New York, 1861; 1st pres. of the Wis. Syn. coll. at Watertown, Wisconsin, 186569; prof. Pennsylvania Coll., Getteysburg, 1869.
(18051900). B. Norwich, Eng.; educ. Manchester Coll., York; Unitarian (see Unitarianism) theol.; prof. Manchester New Coll. 1840; apologist of theism* against materialism,* but rejected doctrines of Trin., incarnation of Christ, vicarious atonement. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
(Corneille; 1568 [1567?]1621). B. Antwerp, Belg.; educ. Rostock, Ger.; prof. philos. Helmstedt 1592; introd. Aristotelian metaphysics into Luth. thought; tried to determine the relationship bet. philos. and theol.; influenced J. Gerhard; followers included J. Martini* and G. Calixtus.* Works include Commentarium in librum Aristotelis de interpretatione; Compendium theologiae; Tractatus de analysi logica.
(15701649). B. Langenstein, near Halberstadt, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt and Wittenberg; prof. logic 1602, ethics 1613, theol. 1623 Wittenberg; exponent of (Prot.) Aristotelian metaphysics. Works include Partitionum & quaestionum metaphysicarum libri VIII.
(15721630). B. Freienhagen, Waldeck, Ger.; Ref. theol.; court preacher and prof. Herborn; pastor Emden; prof. and rector Bremen Gymnasium; exponent of federal* theol.; followers included J. Cocceius.* Works include Christianae doctrinae summa capita; Lexicon philologicum.
Lincoln, Nebraska Founded 1913 by the Ger. Nebraska Syn.; merged 1932 with Western* Theol. Sem. and Northwestern* Luth. Theol. Sem.; suspended operation June 1934. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, 8; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 3.
(ca. 510/520ca. 579). B. Pannonia; monk in Palestine; abbot, bp. Dumio (Dumia; Dumium; Duma), near Braga (ancient Bracara [Braccara] Augusta; now in Port.); abp. Braga. Works include De ira; De moribus; Formula honestae vitae.
MPL, 72, 1752; 74, 381394.
(September 18, 1868July 26, 1969). B. Huxley, Iowa; d. Hong Kong; wife of Andrew Martinson, United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. miss. to China 1902; after his death 1913 she continued his work until forced to flee to Hong Kong 1948.
(Ottone [Oddone; Oddo; Odo] [de] Colonna; 13681431). B. Genazzano, near Rome, It.; pope 141731 (elected at Council of Constance*); tried to heal papal schism that began 1378. See also Basel, Council of; Pavia, Synods of; Schism, 8.
(17811812). Angl.; b. Truro, Cornwall, Eng.; d. Tokat, Asia Minor. Educ. Cambridge; reached Calcutta, India, May 1806 as chaplain of E India Co.; settled at Dinapur (Dinapore) October 1806; ministered to natives; transferred to Cawnpore 1809; ill; in search of health to Persia 1811, then to Arabia and Asia Minor. Tr. NT into Hindustani, Persian, and Arab., the Ps into Persian, and the Book of Common Prayer into Hindustani. See also Abdul Masih; Middle East, I.
(from Gk. martys, martyros, witness). The disciples and apostles were witnesses of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus; cf. Acts 1:8 Ye shall be witnesses (Gk. martyres). Clement of Rome (see Apostolic Fathers, 1) spoke of witness in the sense of giving one's life for one's faith. Tertullian* regarded martyrdom in this sense as a 2d baptism because it removed all sin and assured heavenly bliss. Augustine* of Hippo held that the reason for suffering, not suffering itself, makes a martyr.
Some regard the Holy Innocents of Bethlehem as the 1st Christian martyrs (see Church Year, 1). Other early Christian martyrs include Stephen (Acts 6:87:60), James (Acts 12:2), and Antipas (Rv 2:13); Peter and Paul are usually included on basis of tradition; others include Ignatius of Antioch and Polycarp (see Apostolic Fathers, 3) and others who perished in persecutions* of Christians.
Martyrs of the Reformation and post-Reformation age include L. de Berquin,* A. Clarenbach,* G. II de Coligny,* T. Cranmer,* J. Diaz,* J. Esch,* P. Fliesteden,* P. Hamilton,* Henry* of Zutphen, J. Hooper,* B. Hubmaier,* L. Kaiser,* H. Latimer,* A. Paleario,* N. Ridley,* J. Rogers,* H. Voes,* G. Wishart.*
In the 1st half of the 20th c. many Christians, esp. clerics, were killed in Russ. Many lost their lives in persecutions of RCs in Sp. 193637 and Mex. 192638. In Ger., RCs and Prots. were executed by Nazis (see also Bonhoeffer, Dietrich; Kirchenkampf). Armenian Christians were killed in Ottoman persecutions during and after WW I.
Missionaries were often killed by natives to whom they were bringing the Gospel.
In Am., some RC missionaries were killed by natives. Most prominent Luth. martyrs: Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Fr., and ca. 280 companions (mems. of a naval miss. sent by the king of Fr. to colonize the E coast of Florida), killed by Spanish because they were Lutherans and enemies of our holy Catholic faith, September and October 1565 near Saint Augustine, Florida
The term martyr is used also of those who suffered persecution and torture for the faith but without loss of life.
L. E. Smith, Heroes and Martyrs of the Modern Missionary Enterprise (Providence, Rhode Island, 1856); H. W. Surkau, Martyrien in jüdischer und frühchristlicher Zeit (Göttingen, 1938); B. H. Forck, und folget ihrem Glauben nach: Gedenkbuch für die Blutzeugen der Bekennenden Kirche (Stuttgart, 1949); D. Attwater, Martyrs from St. Stephen to John Tung (London, 1958); G. Ricciotti, The Age of Martyrs: Christianity from Diocletian to Constantine, tr. A. Bull (Milwaukee, 1959); N. Brox, Zeuge und Märtyrer: Untersuchungen zur frühchristlichen Zeugnis-Terminologie (Munich, 1961); K. Rahner, On the Theology of Death, tr. C. H. Henkey (New York, 1961); H. v. Campenhausen, Die Idee des Martyriums in der alten Kirche, 2d ed. (Göttingen, 1964); W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of a Conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus (Oxford, 1965). EL
Monument or memorial edifice commemorating the death of a Christian martyr or witness for Christ.
(181883). Pol. philos.; regarded by many as founder of modern socialism based on hist. materialism; b. Trier (Treves), Prussia; bapt. in Luth. ch. 1824; educ. Bonn and Berlin; joined Hegelian Left (see Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 9); ed. Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne 1842 (it was suppressed 1843); to Paris 1843; coed. the only issue of Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher; influenced by Fr. socialists including C. H. de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon*; 1844 wrote, with F. Engels,* Die heilige Familie, an attack on B. Bauer*; 1845 contributed to Vorwärts, a radical Ger. paper pub. in Paris; expelled from Fr. 1845; to Brussels, Belg., 1845, where he contacted the workingmen's movement; wrote La Misère de la Philosophie 1847; with Engels wrote Communist Manifesto 1847; expelled from Brussels 1848; to Cologne via Paris; 1849 via Paris to London; led in organizing Internat. Workingmen's Assoc. 1864 (known as First International; this and the 2 following Internationals [1889; 1919] gave rise to the shorter name The International); spent last days in illness and financial difficulties.
Communist Manifesto is divided: I. Bourgeois and Proletarians; II. Proletarians and Communists; III. Socialist and Communist Literature; IV. Position of the Communists in Relation to Various Existing Opposition Parties. Basic suppositions ordinarily regarded as underlying Communist Manifesto: 1. Marxian dialectics; 2. class struggle; 3. economic determinism (or hist. materialism); 4. labor theory of value and surplus value. Other works include Das Kapital.
See also Socialism, 4.
P. M. Bretscher, The Communist Manifesto, CTM, XVII (October 1946), 742769.
(Mary Tudor; Bloody Mary; 151658). Daughter of Henry* VIII and Catherine of Aragon; queen of Eng. and Ireland 155358. Educ. strict RC; lived in comparative obscurity till 1553; ordered execution of Jane Grey, Prot. and potential rival to throne; married Philip II (152798; king of Sp. 155698) 1554; reest. RCm in Eng.; Prot. martyrs numbered ca. 300. See also Bible Versions, L 7; Cranmer, Thomas; England, B 5; Hooper, John; Latimer, Hugh; Ridley, Nicholas; Rogers, John.
(Maryland Syn.; 18331962). See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11.
(Maryland and Virginia Syn.; 182033). See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 29.
(de' Pazzi; 15661607). B. Florence, It.; entered Carmelite convent, Florence, 1582; first experienced great physical and spiritual suffering, later spiritual ecstasies in course of which she gave spiritual counsels which were recorded and pub. by fellow nuns after her death.
(150558). B. Brussels, Brabant; queen of Hung. 152226; regent of Neth. 153152; sister of Charles* V; M. Luther* dedicated his interpretation of Ps 37, 62, 94, and 109 to her at her husband's death.
(Jacobus Masenius; 160681). B. in the region of Jülich, Ger.; Jesuit. Works include Sarkothea (said by some to have been a source of J. Milton's* Paradise Lost); Meditata concordia pretestantium cum catholicis in una confessione fidei ex S.S.
(17921872). B. Medfield, Massachusetts; cofounder Boston Academy of Music. Ed. Church Psalmody and Manual of Christian Psalmody; composed hymn tunes, including Nearer, My God, to Thee, From Greenland's Icy Mountains, and My Faith Looks Up to Thee; other works include Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, for Instruction in the Elements of Vocal Music.
(Massora[h]; from Heb. Mas[s]oreth, literal meaning uncertain, perhaps tradition). Jewish critical notes on (consonantal) OT text, esp. Pentateuch; compiled ca. 6th-ca. 10th c. by Mas(s)oretes (Masorites); tried to preserve OT text accurately; verses (traditionally 23,203), words, and letters were counted; peculiarities were noted and classified; explanations of difficulties were transmitted orally from generation to generation at least till the 7th c.; questions of spelling were discussed; systems of vowel points developed; textual-critical apparatus was included, as was also division of the text into larger (sidra) and smaller (parashah) sections. See also Manuscripts of the Bible, 1.
(from Lat. missa, perhaps in its use in Ite, missa est, a formula of dismissal at end of missa* catechumenorum and missa* fidelium; Ger. Messe). 1. Old name for Lord's Supper (see Grace, Means of, IV). In the Middle Ages it became the most common name for the service.
2. RC doctrine made the mass more sacrificial than sacramental in people's minds.
3. At the time of the Reformation many Prot. leaders (e.g., H. Zwingli*) abolished the RC form of the mass and substituted a memorial Communion service. Luths. retained the mass but purged it of all misinterpretations.
4. The Luth. symbols object to certain medieval features of the mass, e.g., Communion under one kind; celebration by a solitary priest as a private devotion; understanding the mass as a propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of the living and the dead (see also Liturgics); buying and selling masses. Cf. SA, Part II, Art. II; AC XXII.
5. We are unjustly accused of having abolished the Mass. Without boasting, it is manifest that the Mass is observed among us with greater devotion and more earnestness than among our opponents. Moreover, the people are instructed often and with great diligence concerning the holy sacrament, why it was instituted, and how it is to be used (namely, as a comfort for terrified consciences) in order that the people may be drawn to the Communion and Mass. Since, therefore, no novelty has been introduced which did not exist in the church from ancient times, and since no conspicuous change has been made in the public ceremonies of the Mass except that other unnecessary Masses which were held in addition to the parochial Mass, probably through abuse, have been discontinued, this manner of holding Mass ought not in fairness be condemned as heretical or unchristian. (AC XXIV 1, 40)
6. To begin with, we must repeat the prefatory statement that we do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. In our churches Mass is celebrated every Sunday and on other festivals, when the sacrament is offered to those who wish for it after they have been examined and absolved. We keep traditional liturgical forms, such as the order of the lessons, prayers, vestments, etc. (Ap XXIV 1)
7. The Luth. symbols call the mass a sacrifice, but eucharistic rather than propitiatory (Ap XXIV 20 ff.). Even so, they place the most important emphasis on the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, not the eucharistic sacrifice.
9. At the time of the Reformation there was great need for vernacular masses. Therefore in many Luth. parishes, esp. in rural areas, the mass was sung in the vernacular, often based on Luther's Deudsche Messe (see Luther, Liturgies of). In larger cities, esp. at univs., the Lat. mass was used by some Luths. as late as the 18th c.
10. In the 16th c. the ceremonies of the mass remained almost unchanged. In most Luth. chs. the canon of the mass was omitted, but the other parts of the service remained intact. Luther wrote to G. Brück* April 4, 1541: In our churches, thank God, the neutral things [common to both Luths. and RCs] are such that when a layman, Walloon, or Spaniard who could not understand our sermon, would see our mass, choir, organ, bells, chasubles, etc., he would have to say, 'This is indeed a Roman Catholic church.' There is no difference, or at least no more than they have among themselves. (WA-Br 9, 357)
Y. Brilioth, Eucharistic Faith and Practice, tr. A. G. Hebert (New York, 1930); G. Aulén, Eucharist and Sacrifice, tr. E. H. Wahlstrom (Philadelphia, 1958); G. Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, 2d ed. (London, 1945); F. Lindemann, The Sermon and the Propers, 4 vols. (St. Louis, 195859); L. D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1959); H. Sasse, This Is My Body (Minneapolis, 1959); F. Lochner, Der Hauptgottesdienst der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche (St. Louis, 1895); J. A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, tr. F. A. Brunner, 2 vols. (New York, 195155); Leiturgia (Kassel, 195470); G. Rietschel, Lehrbuch der Liturgik, 2d ed., ed. P. Graff (Göttingen, 1951); M. Luther, The Blessed Sacrament of the Holy and True Body of Christ, and the Brotherhoods, tr. J. J. Schindel, rev. E. T. Bachmann, in Luther's Works, Am. ed., XXXV (Philadelphia, 1960), 4573, A Treatise on the New Testament, That Is, The Holy Mass, tr. J. J. Schindel, rev. E. T. Bachmann, in Luther's Works, Am. ed., XXXV (Philadelphia, 1960), 75111, The Adoration of the Sacrament, tr. A. R. Wentz, in Luther's Works, Am. ed., XXXVI (Philadelphia, 1959), 269305, Formula of Mass and Communion, tr. P. Z. Strodach, in Works of Martin Luther, Holman ed., VI (Philadelphia, 1932), 65117, and The German Mass and Order of Service, tr. and introd. A. Steimle, with special introd. by L. D. Reed, in Works of Martin Luther, Holman ed., VI (Philadelphia, 1932), 151189. EFP
(18421912). B. Montaud, near Saint-Étienne, Fr.; composer; prof. Paris Conservatory; mem. Académie des Beaux-Arts. Works include oratorios (e.g., Marie-Magdeleine), operas (e.g., Manon), cantatas, ballets, songs.
(180087). B. Chester, Cheshire, Eng.; tr. many hymns of M. Luther,* P. Gerhardt,* K. J. P. Spitta,* and other Ger. hymnists. Translations include To Shepherds as They Watched by Night; Now Praise We Christ, the Holy One; Christ Jesus Lay in Death's Strong Bands; God the Father, Be Our Stay; That Man a Godly Life Might Live; Dear Christians, One and All, Rejoice; May God Bestow on Us His Grace; If God Himself Be for Me; Come, Thou Bright and Morning Star.
(18571927). Hung. theol.; prof. NT and systematic theol., at Ev. Luth. Academy, Bratislava. Works include a life of M. Luther, dogmatics, life of Jesus, life and letters of Paul, Hung. tr. of NT and of selected writings of M. Luther.
Theory which originated in Gk. philosophy* and regards matter as the original cause of all, even psychic, phenomena. Asserting that all psychic processes are due to changes of material molecules, it denies the existence of the soul*; developed by Encyclopedists*; became prominent in Ger. in the 19th c. See also Büchner, Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig; Democritus; Dialectical Materialism; Loofs, Friedrich; Marx, Karl Heinrich; Naturalism; Vogt, Karl.
Family name prominent in early New Eng. hist. 1. Richard (15961669). Father of 2; b. Lowton, Lancashire, Eng.; ordained in Angl. Ch. 1618; suspended 1633/34 for Puritanism: to Boston, Massachusetts, 1635; Cong. pastor Dorchester, Massachusetts, 163669. 2. Increase (16391723). Son of 1, father of 3; b. Dorchester, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Cong. pastor Boston 16641723; pres. Harvard U. 16851701. 3. Cotton (16631728). Son of 2; b. Boston, Massachusetts; asst. to his father 16851723; his father's successor 1723; first supported witchhunts, later regarded them as unfair. Works include Magnalia Christi Americana: Or the Ecclesiastical History of New England from Its First Planting in the Year 1620 unto the Year of Our Lord 1698.
(150465). B. Rochlitz, near Chemnitz, Ger.; studied at Ingolstadt; employed at Adelshausen, near Munich, where he became acquainted with writings of M. Luther*; attended Wittenberg U.; teacher Altenburg; rector Joachimsthal (Jáchymov) 1532; completed studies in theol. at Wittenberg; table companion of Luther; preacher (Diakonus) 1541, pastor 1545 Joachimsthal; hymnist. First biography of Luther imbedded in his sermons; hymns include Herr Gott, der du mein Vater bist. See also Luther, Table Talk of.
(18531919). Ordained RC priest 1878; lost status because of marriage 1892; allowed to officiate in Angl. Ch.; consecrated abp. in Gt. Brit. at Utrecht, Neth., by Dutch Old Cath. Ch. 1908; repudiated 1910.
(18631941). Bap. layman, educ.; b. Portland, Maine; prof. NT hist. and interpretation, and of systematic, hist., and comparative theol. U. of Chicago (Divinity School), dean 1908: pres. FCC 191216; pres. N Bap. Conv. 1915; liberal theol. With G. B. Smith ed. A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics; other works include The Social Teaching of Jesus; The Church and the Changing Order; The Spiritual Interpretation of History; The French Revolution; The Faith of Modernism; Creative Christianity. See also Chicago School of Theology; Social Gospel.
(November 8, 1876January 27, 1948). B. Easton, Pennsylvania; educ. Lutheran Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia; Pennsylvania Ministerium pastor Trenton, New Jersey, 190115, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 191538; ALC prof. theol. Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, 193948. Hymn translations include stanza 5 of Behold, a Branch Is Growing.
(16811746). Musician, composer, writer, theorist, critic, controversialist; b. Hamburg. Ger. of Norw. parents; active in Hamburg; helped develop ch. cantata; supported more dramatic style; introd. female singers into his choir; deaf 1728. Works include oratorios; a Passion; a mass. See also Passion, The.
(ca. 1238/401302). Franciscan philos.; b. Aquasparta, Umbria, It.; minister gen. of his order 1287; cardinal 1288; advisor of Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12); defended Augustinianism* against Aristotelianism (see Aristotle) of Thomas* Aquinas.
(October 9, 1905November 16, 1964). B. Warren, Minnesota; educ. Augustana Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois Pastor East Orange, New Jersey, 193039; New Haven, Connecticut, 193945. Pres. New Eng. Conf. of Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. of N Am., Worcester, Massachusetts, 194548. Pres. Augustana Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois, 194862. Translated Y. T. Brilioth, A Brief History of Preaching other works include The Glory of Common Tasks.
Unsuccessful colloquy held at Maulbronn, Ger., 1564, to heal dissension bet. Luths. of Württemberg and Calvinists of the Palatinate. Representatives of the Palatinate included Frederick* III, M. Diller,* P. Boquin,* C. Olevian(us),* Z. Ursinus,* P. Dathenus,* T. Erastus*; of Württemberg: J. Brenz,* Jakob Andreä,* B. Bidembach,* L. Osiander* the Elder.
Legendary leader of Christian Theban Legion which is said to have been massacred by Maximian* when it refused to sacrifice.
(180572). B. Normanstone, near Lowestoft, Suffolk, Eng.; son of a Unitarian cleric; Angl. priest 1834; tried to attract the educated and liberal to the ch., which ought to grapple with skepticism; emphasized Fatherhood of God and the ethical and spiritual influence of Christ's sacrifice; leader in Broad Ch.; with T. Hughes* and J. M. F. Ludlow* founded Working Men's Coll., London, 1854; with Hughes, Ludlow, and C. Kingsley* founded Christian* Socialism. Works include The Kingdom of Christ; Theological Essays; Mediaeval Philosophy; Modern Philosophy; What Is Revelation? See also Metaphysical Society, The.
(Moritz; 152153). Duke of Saxony 154153; in return for guarantee of territory (protectorate of the bishoprics of Magdeburg and Halberstadt) and the title of elector, he helped Charles* V crush John* Frederick, his (Maurice's) cousin; tried to find common ground bet. Charles V and the Prot. states in the Leipzig Interim (see Interim, II); feared growing power of Charles V; angered at harsh treatment of his father-in-law, Philip* of Hesse; turned against Charles V, defeated him at Innsbruck, Austria, and forced him to agree to the terms of the convention of Passau*; died at Sievershausen, Ger., in battle against Albert,* Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, who had refused to agree to the convention of Passau.
Fr. Benedictine Cong. of St. Maur; named after Maurus (or Maur; ca. 512584; b. perhaps Rome, It.; legendary Fr. monk; disciple of Benedict* of Nursia); founded 1621 by L. Bénard* as part of reform movement begun 1589 at the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Vanne, Verdun, Fr.; known for scholarship (see Mabillon, Jean; Martène, Edmond; Montfaucon, Bernard de); suppressed by Fr. Revolution (see Church and State, 15; France, 5); dissolved 1818 by Pius VII (see Popes, 27).
(formerly Ile de France). Mem. Brit. Commonwealth as indep. nation since 1968. Is. ca. 450/500 mi. E of Madagascar. Area: ca. 787 sq. mi. Religion: ca. 50% Hindu, ca. 33% Christian (ca. 240,000 RCs; ca. 11,000 Ch. of Eng.; ca. 3,000 other Prots.), ca. 14% Muslim, ca. 2% Buddhist, ca. 1% other. RCm introd. 1722 by Lazarists.*
(Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus; surname Herculius; Maximianus I; d. 310). Father of Maxentius*; b. Pannonia, It.; Roman emp. with Diocletian* 286305, with Maxentius 306308; persecuted Christians. See also Maurice; Persecution of Christians, 4.
(originally Daia; d. 314). Nephew of Galerius*; b. Illyria; Caesar 305; Roman emp. 308313/314 (after struggle for power he attained the rank of Augustus in 310); defeated 313 by Licinius.* See also Persecution of Christians, 4.
(ca. 580622). B. Constantinople; abbot of monastery of Scutari, near Chrysopolis (Üsküdar), in Asia, across the Bosporus from Constantinople; prominent opponent of Monothelitism* in Afr. and at Rome.
(Mayus; Majus; Mai; 16531719). Luth. theol.; b. Pforzheim, Ger.; pupil of A. Calov(ius)*; prof. Heb. Durlach 1684, orientalism and theol. Giessen 1688; supt. Giessen and Alsfeld 1690; follower of J. Cocceius* and P. J. Spener*; opposed orthodox scholasticism; favored a practical covenant theology. Pub. a Heb. Bible.
(November 5, 1892July 20, 1954). B. New Wells, Missouri; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Sherrard and Coal Valley, Illinois, 191518; Kewanee, Illinois, 191826. Prof. Conc. Theol. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192637; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 193754. Ed. Concordia Theological Monthly; coauthor Popular Symbolics; other works include To Sign or Not to Sign the Catholic Prenuptial Contract; Jehovah's Witnesses; American Churches; Beliefs and Practices; The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel and the Terminology Visible and Invisible Church; The Religious Bodies of America; The Story of Bad Boll.
(16501712). Luth. theol.; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Strasbourg; pastor Leipzig; supt. Leisnig and Grimma; prof. Wittenberg 1684; pastor Hamburg 1686 and prof. Kiel 1687; gen. supt. and prof. Greifswald 1701; opposed Pietism* because it threatened sola* fide; worked for better hymnbook and better catechetical and homiletical training.
Agreement adopted by Pilgrims (Plymouth colonists) at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, November 11, 1620; states that the purposes of the colony to be founded included the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith.
(16731758). B. Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts; miss. Martha's Vineyard for the Society* for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England. Tr. Ps and Jn for Indians; other works include Indian Converts; Grace Defended.
(Falk Laws). Drawn up by Paul Ludwig Adalbert Falk (18281900; Ger. Minister of Pub. Worship and Educ. 1872); enacted by the Prussian diet May 1873; condemned 1875 by Pius IX (see Popes, 28) in encyclical Quod numquam; an expression of Ger. nationalism aimed at RCm, but put all relations bet. ch. and state on a new basis. See also Kulturkampf.
(It.: Giulio Mazarini; 160261). Fr. cardinal and statesman; b. Pescina, It., of Sicilian parentage; educ. Rome (by Jesuits) and Alcalá de Henares, Sp.; infantry captain in army of the papal states; in papal diplomatic service; vice-legate at Avignon; naturalized Frenchman 1639; cardinal 1641; succeeded A. J. du P. de Richelieu* as prime minister 1642; enlarged Fr. territory at Peace of Westphalia* 1648; maintained conciliatory policy toward Huguenots*; sided with Innocent X (see Popes, 23) against Jansenists (see Jansenism). See also Mazarin Bible.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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