c. With Henry* VIII et al. Luther's The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (see Babylonian Captivity, 3; Luther, Chief Writings of, 4) encountered widespread opposition. Henry VIII issued Assertio septem sacramentorum July 1521. Luther replied to Henry VIII July 1522. To this Henry VIII did not reply personally but was defended by writings of T. Murner,* J. Fisher,* and T. More.* Further correspondence bet. Luther and Henry VIII 152528 failed to settle the issues in controversy.
Luther and Henry VIII clashed for the 2d time when Henry VIII proposed divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Luther held that the marriage had taken place under a dispensation which should not have been granted, but that the marriage should not be broken.
d. With Anabaptists While Luther was at the Wartburg (see Luther, Martin, 1315), G. Zwilling* and A. R. B. v. Karlstadt* with their radical reforms caused disturbance in Wittenberg. Luther carne secretly to the city December 1521 to restore quiet. But the Zwickau* prophets came December 1521 and fanned the sparks into a blaze. Luther was asked to return and bring order out of chaos. This he did March 1522 with 8 sermons. Karlstadt and the Zwickau prophets went elsewhere. See also Münster Kingdom.
e. With the Peasants. See Peasants' War.
f. With Erasmus. At first D. Erasmus* favored Luther, but finally, under threat of losing pension, he wrote De libero arbitrio against Luther 1524. Luther replied with De servo arbitrio 1525, in which he showed from the NT that salvation does not depend on man's free will, but on God's free grace; many regard this as his most profound work. Erasmus wrote Hyperaspistes 1526, but Luther did not reply.
g. With Zwingli. H. Zwingli* read Luther 1518, received religious power and moral depth from him, received his doctrine of the Lord's Supper from C. H. Hoen* ca. 1523, attacked Luther's position 1524. Union of pope and emp. against evangelicals was in evidence at the 1529 Diet of Speyer.* In defense, Philip* of Hesse and Zwingli tried to build a pol. alliance bet. Swiss and Saxon ev. forces and to that end to remove doctrinal differences at the Colloquy of Marburg (see also Lutheran Confessions, A 2). Luther there gave Zwingli and his followers the hand of peace and charity but could not agree with them on the question of the Real Presence (see also Grace, Means of, IV 3).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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