412 abps. and bps. and 800 or more abbots and priors attended Lateran Council IV 1215; concerns included recovery of the Holy Land (see Crusades, 7), ch. reform, and condemnation of doctrines of Albigenses,* Cathari,* and Waldenses*; noteworthy also for definitive doctrine of transubstantiation* and for legislation on annual confession and Communion.
Average attendance at Lateran Council V 151217 was ca. 100150; approved Leo X's (see Popes, 20) 1516 bull Pastor aeternus, which abolished the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges and declared the pope superior to councils; approved strict censorship of publications; confirmed Unam* sanctam. See also Agapetae; Councils and Synods, 4; Inquisition, 3.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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