Antipathy bet. organized labor and chs. was aroused by methods of Knights of Labor (organized as a secret organization 1869 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; dropped secrecy early in 1880s; ended formal organization 1917) in 1880s and Industrial Workers of the World (organized 1905 in Chicago, Illinois) 1908ca. 1917. In course of time, after organization of the American Federation of Labor 1886 and the Congress of Industrial Organizations 1938, demands of labor were more often in harmony with Christian goals of love and justice. Arbitration of labor disputes by clerics and increasing activity of ch. mems. in unions have helped develop and widen areas of common interest. Application of Gl 6:2; Cl 3:224:1; 2 Th 3:10; 1 Ti 5:18 to collective bargaining, cooperatives, working conditions, wages, and overtime work has brought greater interest in the ch. to labor. See also Capital and Labor; Industry and the Church. JD
L. Pope, Millhands & Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut, 1942); Labor's Relation to Church and Community, ed. L. Pope (New York, 1947); Labor Speaks for Itself on Religion, ed. J. Davis (New York, 1929); J. Myers, Do You Know Labor? (Washington, D. C., 1940); W. H. Greever, Human Relationships and the Church (New York, 1939); C. Stelzle, The Church and the Labor Movement (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1910); J. Daniel, The Church and Labor-Management Problems of Our Day (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1947) and Labor, Industry, and the Church (St. Louis, 1957); R. C. Kwant, Philosophy of Labor (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1960); G. Siefer, The Church and Industrial Society: A survey of the Worker-Priest Movement and its implications for the Christian Mission (London, 1964).
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