(cultural struggle or struggle for civilization). Term used January 17, 1873, in the Prussian Landtag (Parliament) by Rudolf Virchow (18211902; Ger. pathologist, anthropologist, pol.; b. Schivelbein, Pomerania) in reference to the conflict bet. church* and state. RC power and influence had waned with the decline of Austria (marked by the fall of Sadowa [Königgrätz] to Prussia 1866) and Fr. (marked by the fall of Sedan to Prussia 1870); Protestantism came into ascendancy in Ger. with the founding of the Ger. empire under William I (Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig; 17971888; king of Prussia 186188; Ger. emp. 187188) and Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (181598; Iron Chancellor of Ger. 187190); papal infallibility* and authority was challenged. Resultant tension led to May* Laws. In the ensuing polarization, Prots. also came to resist the new policy. Basic realignment and relief of tension was effected by change in policy when Pius IX was succeeded by Leo XIII (see Popes, 2829); most pertinent laws were modified or nullified; Falk resigned 1879; by 1887 the Kulturkampf was over.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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