Reformatory movement in Fr. RCm inaugurated by C. Jansen* and supported by such men as J. Du Vergier* de Hauranne, B. Pascal,* A. Arnauld,* P. Quesnel.*
The movement tried to revive the Augustinian doctrine of sin and grace as a means of counteracting Jesuitism (see Society of Jesus) and of quickening spiritual life. Jansen's book Augustinus was attacked by Jesuits, condemned 1641 by the Inquisition,* and by Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini; 15681644; b. Florence, It.; pope 162344) in the bull In eminenti (signed 1642, promulgated 1643). Arnauld's attack on the opus* operatum theory and the lax moral theol, of the Jesuits was met 1653 by Innocent X (see Popes, 23) with the bull Cum occasione, which explicitly condemned 5 propositions which Arnauld said could be favorably understood. When Jansenists protested that the propositions were not taught by Jansen in the sense in which they were condemned, Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi; 15991667; b. Siena, It.; pope 165567) said they contained the meaning which Jansen intended and condemned them in the bull Ad sanctam beati Petri sedem (1656; released in Fr. 1657). He also demanded that Jansenists accept the papal pronouncements of 1642, 1653, and 1656. Refusal of Jansenists to comply led to repressive measures against them by pope and king (see also Port-Royal). Many fled or were banished. Temporary cessation of the Jansenist conflict was effected ca. 1668.
The 2d stage of Fr. Jansenism began 1693 with pub. of Quesnel's NT with devotional comments, which provoked another outburst of Jesuit wrath and the bull Unigenitus.* The ensuing quarrel rent the Fr. clergy into Acceptants (who accepted the bull) and Appellants (who appealed from the pope to a gen. council). Appellants were excommunicated 1718. Dutch Jansenists separated from the RC Ch. 1723/24, later joined the Old* Catholics.
See also Baius, Michael; Ultramontanism.
N. J. Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism (Oxford, 1936); A. Gazier, Histoire générale du mouvement janséniste depuis ses origines Jusqu'à nos jours (Paris, 1922).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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