1. Name used in a wide sense for the Malay Archipelago (The Islands of India) and by extension for all areas of Malay-related people, and in a narrow sense for the Rep. of Indonesia; former names for the Rep. of Indonesia include: Dutch E Indies; E Indies; Neth. E Indies; Neth. Indies. Area: ca. 735,432 sq. mi. consisting of ca. 3,000 islands of SE Asia, N and NW of Australia; chief islands: the Greater Sundas (Soendas; include Java [which includes Madoera (Madura) since 1885], Sumatra, Borneo [Kalimantan], and Celebes [Sulawesi]), Irian Jaya, New Guinea), Moluccas (Maluku; Molukken; Spice Islands), and the Lesser Sundas (Soendas; renamed Nusa Tenggara 1954; include Bali, Lombok, Soembawa [Sumbawa], and Timor). (remove population figures) including Atjehnese (Achinese), Bataks, Menangkabaus, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, Sasaks, Menadonese, Buginese, Dayaks, Papuans. Capital: Djakarta (Jakarta; formerly called Batavia). Neth. territory till March 1942; occupied by Jap. 194245; proclaimed a rep. by nationalists 1945 (recognized by Neth. 1949); West Irian transferred by Neth. to UN 1962, given to Indonesia 1963. Indonesia withdrew from UN 1965. Religions: Islam* ca. 90%; Buddhism,* Hinduism,* and Christianity are important minorities. See also New Guinea, 1, 2.
2. Christians may have reached Indonesia in the 14th century. Port. (arrived 1511) and Spaniards brought RC missionaries in the 16th century. Dutch brought Protestantism ca. 1600. In the 17th c. the United E India Co. sponsored miss. work. The work of W. Carey* and A. Judson* stimulated formation of miss. socs. which sponsored work in Indonesia. H. Kraemer* and J. H. Bavinck* promoted indigenization of Indonesian chs.
3. Java and Madoera. Area: ca. 51,000 sq. mi.; ca. 90% Islamic. Ca. the middle of the 19th c. Mennonites sent workers to Sumatra and Java. The outstanding soc. is the Netherlands* Miss. Society. Baps. began work 1951 in Bandung (Bandoeng). The CIM (now OMF) began work among Mandarin-speaking Chinese after WW II. Other groups include Salvation* Army, Worldwide* Evangelization Crusade, Assemblies* of God, and Pentecostals. Indigenous Prot. chs.: E Java Ch., Middle Java Ch., and W Java Ch.
4. Sumatra. Area: ca. 182,800 sq. mi. including islands along W and SE coasts. (Malays, Hindus, and Chinese). Hindus arrived early in the Christian era; Arabs invaded 13th c.; Dutch est. settlements on SW coast 166364. H. Lyman* and S. Munson* were pioneer ABCFM missionaries; mistaken for Muslim spies, killed, eaten by Bataks Bataks.* The Basel* Miss. Soc. began work in W Sumatra 1858. L. I. Nommensen of the of Rhenish* Miss. Soc. was very successful. The Batak Ch. and the Nias Ch. resulted from work of the Basel and Rhenish societies. Meths. sent permanent miss. to Chinese 1912. Other groups include Worldwide Evangelization Crusade and OMF.
5. Kalimantan. Area: 212,463 sq. mi. RMS began work 1835 among Dayak in SE Borneo. Field given to Basel Miss. Soc. 1925. The Christian and Miss. Alliance (see Evangelistic Associations, 5) began work in Borneo ca. 1929. Other groups include Regions* Beyond Miss. Union since 1932; Worldwide Evangelization Crusade since 1950; OMF; New* Tribes Miss.; Go-Ye* Fellowship; Dutch Ref. Ch.; Pentecostals.
7. Irian Jaya (renamed 1973 from West Irian; also known as Irian Barat or West New Guinea; formerly Dutch New Guinea or Neth. New Guinea). Area: ca. 162,000 sq. mi. The Evangelical* Alliance Miss. is carrying on work in Anggi Lakes and Manokwari region. It est. the Erickson-Tritt Bible Institute 1959 (named after 2 miss. murdered 1952 by natives). The Australian Baps. began 1954 in Baliem Valley and Regions Beyond Miss. Union in Swaart Valley 1955. A Dutch group began work 1957. The Missionary* Aviation Fellowship serves all missions. See also New Guinea, 1, 2.
8. Moluccas. Area: 28,766 sq. mi. Dutch ministers assoc. with United E India Co. pioneered here. J. Kamm* of Neth. Miss. Soc. arrived 1815. The Molucca Protestant Church has several hundred thousand mems.
12. Timor. Area (with nearby islands): 18,857 sq. mi. Dutch Prots. arrived 1612. Neth. Miss. Soc. began work 1819. Churches affiliated with the Prot. Ch. of the Neth. Indies 1870. The Ev. Ch. of Timor became autonomous 1947. EL
See also New Guinea.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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