RC list of books proscribed for the faithful. Its hist. begins with a list promulgated 405 by Innocent 1 (d. 417; pope 401417). Many individual works were condemned by popes or councils, e.g., Three Chapters (see Three Chapters, Controversy of); works of Photius,* J. S. Erigena,* J. Wycliffe,* J. Hus.* The Council of Trent,* 4th Session, decreed that no religious books should be pub. without ch. approval.
Paul* IV gave the task of cataloging forbidden books 1557 to a cong. of cardinals that had been appointed 1542 (see Inquisition, 5) and that pub. a list 1559. A commission appointed by the Council of Trent drafted a list ratified 1564 by Pius* IV (Sess. XVII at the beginning; XXV, Concerning the index of books etc.; Ten rules concerning prohibited books, appended to the Confirmation of the Council). Various rules and lists were drafted thereafter. Leo XIII (see Popes, 29) drafted a new Index and gen. rules governing censorship and prohibition of books. The norms were promulgated 1897 and a new Index pub. 1900. Several eds. were pub. later.
Alfredo Ottaviani (b. Rome 1890; cardinal 1953), head of Cong. for the Doctrine of the Faith, announced 1966 that no more eds. of the Index would be pub. But the RC Ch. still claims the right to prohibit books it regards dangerous to faith and morals.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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