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Holy Leagues and Alliances.

1. RC holy leagues were formed in the 16th and 17th c. in qcontinuation of the Crusades.* Such a league was oreanized in It. 1470 after the is. Negropont (Euboea) fell to the Turks. Another retook Otranto, It., 1481, which had fallen to the Turks 1480. Under leadership of Alexander VI (see Popes, 18) an alliance of Fr., Poland, Boh., and Hung. was formed 1500 and a FrancoVenetian fleet sailed the Aegean. In 1538 Charles* V, Paul* III, and Venice formed a holy league that ended the same yr., when the Venetian fleet was defeated by the Turks at the Gk. seaport Preveza. Another league against the Turks, formed 1570 by Pius V (see Popes, 21), Venice, and Philip II (1527–98; king of Sp. 1556–98), won a naval battle against the Turks at the Gulf of Lepanto (Gulf of Corinth), Greece, 1571. The Holy League formed 1683/84 under leadership of Innocent* XI joined Austria, Venice, and, for a short time, Poland against the Turks; helned liberate most of Turkish-occupied Hung. by 1700.

2. Charles VIII (1470–98; king of Fr. 1483–98) invaded It. to claim rights of house of Anjou to Naples, but was repulsed 1495 by Holy League of Ferdinand II (1469–96; king of Naples 1495–96) and Sp. gen. Gonzalo de Córdoba (1453–1515).

3. A Holy League was formed October 1511 against Fr. by Julius II (see Popes, 19), Ferdinand of Aragon (1452–1516; “the Catholic”; b. Sos, Aragon, Sp.; king of Sicily 1468–1516; as Ferdinand V, joint ruler of Castile 1474–1504 with Isabella [1451–1504]; as Ferdinand II, king of Aragon 1479–1516), and Venice. Henry* VIII joined this league November 1511; Maximilian I (1459–1519; king of Ger. 14861519; Holy Roman emp. 1439–1519) joined 1513.

4. In Sp., Toledo and other cities formed a Holy League (Santa Junta) at Avila 1520; opposed the govt.; disintegrated when radical tendencies appeared and upper elements withdrew.

5. The Holy League of Cognac was formed 1526 at Cognac, Fr., against Charles* V by Clement* VII, Francis I (see France, 8), Florence, Venice, and the duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza II). See also Speyer, Diets of, 1, 2.

6. In 1538 a RC Holy Alliance (or league) was formed at Nürnberg, Ger., against the Schmalkaldic* League.

7. The Holy League (Sainte Ligue) formed against Prots. 1576 under leadership of Henri I de Lorraine and his two brothers, Charles, duke of Mayenne, and Louis, abp. Reims and cardinal, aimed to destroy Calvinism and reest. RC unity. See also France, 9.

8. Maximilian I (1573–1651; “the Great”; duke of Bay. 1597–1651; elector 1623–51) led forces 1607 against Prot. Donauwörth; Prot. princes joined hands to resist; in reply, Maximilian became head of a RC holy league 1609.

See also Dessau, League of; Holy Alliance; League and Covenant, Solemn; Regensburg, League of; Schmalkaldic League; Torgau, League of. LP

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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Content Reproduced with Permission

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