1. RC holy leagues were formed in the 16th and 17th c. in qcontinuation of the Crusades.* Such a league was oreanized in It. 1470 after the is. Negropont (Euboea) fell to the Turks. Another retook Otranto, It., 1481, which had fallen to the Turks 1480. Under leadership of Alexander VI (see Popes, 18) an alliance of Fr., Poland, Boh., and Hung. was formed 1500 and a FrancoVenetian fleet sailed the Aegean. In 1538 Charles* V, Paul* III, and Venice formed a holy league that ended the same yr., when the Venetian fleet was defeated by the Turks at the Gk. seaport Preveza. Another league against the Turks, formed 1570 by Pius V (see Popes, 21), Venice, and Philip II (152798; king of Sp. 155698), won a naval battle against the Turks at the Gulf of Lepanto (Gulf of Corinth), Greece, 1571. The Holy League formed 1683/84 under leadership of Innocent* XI joined Austria, Venice, and, for a short time, Poland against the Turks; helned liberate most of Turkish-occupied Hung. by 1700.
2. Charles VIII (147098; king of Fr. 148398) invaded It. to claim rights of house of Anjou to Naples, but was repulsed 1495 by Holy League of Ferdinand II (146996; king of Naples 149596) and Sp. gen. Gonzalo de Córdoba (14531515).
3. A Holy League was formed October 1511 against Fr. by Julius II (see Popes, 19), Ferdinand of Aragon (14521516; the Catholic; b. Sos, Aragon, Sp.; king of Sicily 14681516; as Ferdinand V, joint ruler of Castile 14741504 with Isabella ; as Ferdinand II, king of Aragon 14791516), and Venice. Henry* VIII joined this league November 1511; Maximilian I (14591519; king of Ger. 14861519; Holy Roman emp. 14391519) joined 1513.
5. The Holy League of Cognac was formed 1526 at Cognac, Fr., against Charles* V by Clement* VII, Francis I (see France, 8), Florence, Venice, and the duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza II). See also Speyer, Diets of, 1, 2.
7. The Holy League (Sainte Ligue) formed against Prots. 1576 under leadership of Henri I de Lorraine and his two brothers, Charles, duke of Mayenne, and Louis, abp. Reims and cardinal, aimed to destroy Calvinism and reest. RC unity. See also France, 9.
8. Maximilian I (15731651; the Great; duke of Bay. 15971651; elector 162351) led forces 1607 against Prot. Donauwörth; Prot. princes joined hands to resist; in reply, Maximilian became head of a RC holy league 1609.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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