The High Ch. movement has been traced to such men as R. Bancroft* and R. Hooker,* includes L. Andrewes,* J. Butler,* S. Johnson,* and W. Laud,* but the name dates from the end of the 17th c.; Anglo-Catholicism is a corresponding 20th-c. term. High churchmen stress hist. continuity; they wish to be neither RCs nor Prots. but claim to perpetuate non-Roman (pre-Roman) Western Catholicism; gen. emphasize authority of ch., episc. succession, and use of sacraments. The high ch. movement in Am. stresses spiritual life developed within the ch. through the sacraments.
The term Low Ch. was coined in contrast to High Ch. at beginning of 18th c. Low churchmen (also called evangelicals) emphasize Gospel preaching, accept apostolic succession of episcopacy without rejecting validity of nonepiscopal ministry and give secondary position to sacraments and orders; often also emphasize justification* and conversion.* Many low churchmen identified with Latitudinarians,* Methodists (see Methodist Churches), nonconformists,* and similar groups.
The term Broad Ch. became prominent in 2d half of 19th c. Broad churchmen opposed requiring adherence to definite theol. definitions, emphasized intellectual approach to Christianity, and advocated liberal interpretation of Angl. formularies and rubrics. Broad Ch. principles are often identified with liberalism* and Modernism.* See also African Orthodox Church, The Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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