(17441803). B. Mohrungen, E Prussia; critic, philos., educ., and preacher; gen. supt., court preacher, and pres. of high consistory Weimar; raised to the rank of a noble ca. 1802; influenced by I. Kant* (his teacher) and J. G. Hamann*; influenced J. W. v. Goethe,* J. P. F. Richter,* and other romantic writers; moving spirit in Sturm und Drang. Saw beauty and character in 16th-c. chorales and sought to preserve purity and antiquity of texts; regarded ch. hymns as true folk songs that deepened religious feeling. Prepared the way for the science of comparative philol. and modern comparative religion*; influenced developing Ger. nationalism and historiography; evolutionist after the manner of G. W. Leibniz,* but approached views of C. Darwin.* Ed. Volkslieder; other works include Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache; ldeen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit; Lieder der Liebe; Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie. See also Historicism, 2; Philosophy. HFB
R. T. Clark, Jr., Herder: His Life and Thought (Berkeley, California, 1955); B. v. Wiese, Herder: Grundzüge seines Weltbildes (Leipzig, 1939); R. R. Ergang, Herder and the Foundations of German Nationalism (New York, 1966); J. K. Fugate, The Psychological Basis of Herder's Aesthetics (The Hague, Neth., 1966).
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