(17761841). B. Oldenburg, Ger.; educ. Jena; tutor Interlaken, Switz.; prof. Königsberg and Göttingen; developed and systematized J. H. Pestalozzi's* idea of psychologizing education. Held that the end and aim of education is to develop moral character. Character depends on knowledge; ideas act as forces; will, desire, interest, and feeling are grounded in intellectual activity; content of the mind largely regulates behavior; hence the teacher's duty to supply dominant thoughts and ideas in educative instruction. Absorption and reflection make the mind many-sided; necessary steps: clearness, association, system, method; clearness was later divided into preparation and presentation and system and method were renamed generalization and application; this resulted in Five Formal Steps. In these steps the teacher first prepares the pupil by recalling such ideas as will make the mind receptive for new material, which is then presented; new material is assoc. with other ideas that may suggest themselves; then gen. conceptions are formed and applied. Works include Allgemeine Pädagogik; Psychologische Untersuchungen.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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