(10501106). King of Ger. and Holy Roman emp. 10561106; engaged with Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) in investiture* controversy; excommunicated and declared deposed by Gregory 1076; absolved after penance at Canossa 1077; excommunicated again 1080; declared Gregory deposed; crowned emp. 1084 by Clement III (Guibert, or Wibert, of Ravenna; ca. 10301100; b. Parma, It.; antipope 10801100).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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