(Heb. enlightenment). Jewish enlightenment movement of maskilim (Heb. intellectuals); began as a movement in Ger. ca. the middle of the 18th c. with M. Mendelssohn* as protagonist; fostered knowledge of Jewish literature and philos. and encouraged interest in and adaptation to surroundings; spread to Austria and Russ.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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