The movement originated at U. of Utrecht under influence of Philip Willem van Heusde (17781839), a platonist, who held that Christianity is essentially love, which through fear of God tends to reconcile men with men as children of God. At Groningen there was a similar group that met for study of the NT This group was influenced by such men as L. Usteri,* A. D. C. Twesten,* K. Ullmann,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* G. E. Lessing,* and J. G. v. Herder.* Leaders included P. Hofstede* de Groot, Louis Gerlach Pareau (180066), and Johan Frederik van Oordt (17941852).
The Groningen school was reaction against intellectual systems of theol. It centered attention on the personality, work, and example of Christ. In Christology it approached Arian views: Christ is not God and man at the same time; His divine or spiritual nature is shared by God and man. It denied the doctrine of the Trinity. Christ did not die to atone for man's sin, but His death shows God's love and hence impels man to crucify sensual life. While Christianity is the highest religion, it is not the only true religionú The school denied the infallibility of the Bible and ascribed higher authority to NT than to OT Liberty in theol. matters was emphasized.
See also Mallinckrodt, Willem.
A. Köhler, Die Niederländische Reformirte Kirche (Erlangen, 1856); P. Hofstede de Groot, De Groninger Godgeleerden in hun eigenaardigheid (Groningen, 1855); periodicals: Waarheid in Liefde (183772); Geloof en Vrijheid (18671919); Nieuw Evangelisch Tijdschrift (1919 ).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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