1. Conrad Sigmund (December 2, 1833April 26, 1900). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; attended miss. inst. founded by J. K. W. Löhe* at Nürnberg and relocated as a sem. 1853 at Neuendettelsau*; commissioned for work in Iowa 1854; arrived at Dubuque, Iowa, July 1854; helped organize the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa*; pastor in Wisconsin and Michigan; prof. Wartburg Theol. Sem. (see Ministry, Education of, X S) 18581900; taught OT exegesis,* dogmatics,* and pastoral* theol.; collected funds in Eur. for the sem.; mem. of the commission of the General* Council of the Luth. Ch. in N. Am. that issued the Kirchenbuch für Evangelisch-Lutherische Gemeinden. Sigmund and his brother Gottfried (see par. 2 below), called par nobile fratrum (Lat. a noble pair of brothers), were leading theologians of the Iowa Syn. They issued Kirchen-Blatt (Ger. ch. paper) and Kirchliche Zeitschrift (theol. monthly). In many cases it is impossible to ascertain which of the two is author of a specific art.; as a rule, they discussed every phase of an art. before pub. it. Polemical articles were often against theologians of the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, The), with whom they differed chiefly on open* questions, predestination,* unionism,* and eschatology.* They are often described as having been sincere in their desire for sound and united Lutheranism in Am. but of a somewhat milder type than the strict orthodoxy of the Mo. Syn. See also Altar Fellowship; Dubuque Theses.
2. Gottfried Leonhard Wilhelm (December 19, 1836July 13, 1889). Brother of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. Nürnberg, Ger.; studied at Neuendettelsau inst. of Löhe and U. of Erlangen; commissioned 1856 to be prof. at the theol. sem., Dubuque, Iowa; ordained at Dubuque 1857; miss. in Illinois and Iowa; prof. 185789; taught NT exegesis, ch. hist., dogmatics, symbolics; ed. Kirchen-Blatt and Kirchliche Zeitschrift; learned Eng. and Scand. languages. Works include Passionsbetrachtungen; Theophilus.
3. Maximilian Christopher Immanuel (February 21, 1868January 1, 1940). Son of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Coll., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and the univs. of Rostock, Erlangen, and Leipzig; prof. Wartburg Sem. 1891; pres. 1906.
4. Karl August Johannes (June 24, 1863August 23, 1943). Son of Sigmund (see par. 1 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Coll. and Sem., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and the univs. of Leipzig and Erlangen; ordained 1885; pastor Butler Center, Iowa; prof. Wartburg Coll. (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B) over 50 yrs.
5. George John (May 24, 1867October 5, 1941). Son of Gottfried (see par. 2 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; studied at Wartburg Coll. and Sem., Mendota, Illinois, Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and later in life at univs. of Rostock, Erlangen, and Leipzig; asst. prof, Wartburg Sem., Mendota, Illinois; pastor West Superior, Wisconsin; prof. Texas Luth. Coll., Brenham, Texas, 1892, Wartburg Sem. 1906. Worked for unity with Mo. Syn. Works include Aus den Tagen der Väter; Geschichte der Lutherischen Kirche in Amerika auf Grund von Prof. Dr. H. E. Jacobs History of the Evang. Luth. Church in the United States; Die Lehre von der Bekehrung nach D. Hoeneckes Dogmatik; The Formula of Concord. Comp. Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten.
6. Herman Lawrence (May 15, 1869November 23, 1957). Son of Gottfried (see par. 2 above); b. St. Sebald, Iowa; educ. Wartburg Sem. and univs. of Leipzig and Erlangen; ordained 1892; parish pastor 10 yrs.; pres. and gen. dir. Passavant Institutions in W Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Illinois; dir. Milwaukee Hospital; rector Luth. Deaconess Motherhouse, Milwaukee.
A. Spaeth, S. Fritschel, DD: A Short Biography (Waverly, Iowa, 1901); H. L. Fritschel, Biography of Professor Dr. Conrad Sigmund Fritschel And of Professor Dr. Gottfried Leonhard Wilhelm Fritschel (Milwaukee, 1951). JHB
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