A major dispute in the ch.; became a chief point of difference bet. the E and the W Ch. The Nicene Creed had as the Third Article: And in the Holy Spirit; to this the Constantinopolitan Creed added: The Lord and Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father. The belief that the Spirit proceeds also from the Son (Lat. filioque) is found in the 4th c. (e.g., in Ambrose*), was taught by Augustine* of Hippo, and probably first appeared in creeds in Sp. in the 5th c. The term filioque was adopted at Toledo* 589, probably against Arianism.* Thereafter it was gen. accepted in the W and was adopted at Rome soon after 1000. The E Ch., which made the Father alone the fountainhead of deity, rejected the filioque, but gen. found no difficulty in saying that the Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches, 3; Ecumenical Creeds, B 1; Father, God the; Fatherhood of God; Florence, Council of, 2; God; Lyons, Councils of; Procession of the Holy Spirit; Schism, 4, 6; Trinity.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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