Movement among natives of cen. and S Afr. aimed at dethronement of white supremacy. Began ca. 1892, when the Afr. membership of the Wesleyan Meth. Ch. (British) in Pretoria, Transvaal, withdrew and, under leadership of M. M. Mokone, founded an indep. Ethiopian ch.; its slogan: Africa for the Africans. In 1896 this ch. applied for membership in the African* Methodist Episcopal Church. James Mata Dwane was sent to Am. to unite with the A. M. E. Ch. on behalf of this ch. He represented only part of the Ethiopian Movement, in which ca. 15 different organizations sprang up. He returned as authorized supt. of the work in S Afr. The S Afr. or Cape Colony Conf. was organized 1897. Am. Bp. Henry McNeal Turner (18341915) organized the Transvaal Conf. 1898; later he organized the Sierra Leone, Liberia, and S Afr. confs. By 1904 Bp. Levi J. Coppin organized several Annual Conferences. Meanwhile Dwane approached the Angl. Ch., which formed the Ethiopian Order 1900, ordained Dwane deacon, and made him Provincial of the order. Much religious, racial, and social unrest among the natives resulted from the Ethiopian Movement.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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