(431). Convoked by E Roman Emp. Theodosius* II, who favored Nestorius.* Opening of the council was postponed from day to day for 15 days because John of Antioch and other bps. from Syria and elsewhere in the E (adherents of Nestorius) and the representatives of Rome had not arrived. On June 22 Cyril* of Alexandria, chief opponent of Nestorius, refusing to wait longer, opened the council; the same day it condemned, deposed, and excommunicated Nestorius. The doctrine that Mary is Theotokos* (mother of God), and that God the Word was born, suffered, and died in the flesh, was adopted. The legates of Celestine I of Rome (pope 422432), arriving later, joined in the condemnation of Nestorius July 1011, trying to use the occasion in the interest of the primacy of Rome. The council also condemned Pelagianism* (in the doctrine of Celestius*) and the Messalians (Euchites*). See also Councils and Synods, 4.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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