(18791955). B. Ulm, Ger.; naturalized Swiss at 15; prof. Zurich 190911, Deutsche U., Prague, 191112, Berlin 1914; adopted Ger. citizenship; to US 1933; mem. Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, 193345; naturalized Am. Contributions to science include special (1905) and gen. (1916) theory of relativity; formula for laws of gravitation and electromagnetism; formula for Brownian movement; law of photoelectric effect. Held the external world can only be grasped by speculative means since sense-perception gives only indirect information of it. Distinguished 3 stages in religious development: anthropomorphic, moral, and stage of cosmic religion; the last is the belief that the world is rationally ordered and that God is impersonal. Judaism, he held, is no transcendent religion; its God is negation of superstition. Works include The World As I See It. See also Time.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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