Am. philos. and educ.; prof. Minnesota 1888, Michigan 1889, Chicago 1894, Columbia 190430; adherent of pragmatism* of C. S. Peirce* and W. James,* but modified it in the direction of naturalism* and positivism.* His conception of man was drawn from biology, psychology, and sociology; organs of the body are instruments for dealing with environment; mind and its ideas provide tools for dealing with human situations (instrumentalism). The hypothesis that works is the true one. Truth is an abstract noun applied to the collection of cases that are confirmed by their consequences; hence experimentation enters into the determination of every warranted proposition; propositions in themselves are if-then predictions that have reality in their operations (operationalism). Works include Studies in Logical Theory; Essays in Experimental Logic; Democracy and Education; Reconstruction in Philosophy; Experience and Nature; The Quest for Certainty; A Common Faith; Logic; The Theory of Inquiry. See also Humanist Manifesto, A; Psychology, J.
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