Following councils often considered ecumenical met at Constantinople:
1. The 2d ecumenical council, 381, called by Theodosius* I. Meletius* of Antioch, Gregory* of Nazianzus, and Nectarius* of Constantinople successively presided. Gregory was made bp. of Constantinople; when he resigned, he was replaced by Nectarius. Ca. 150 orthodox bps. attended the council. They produced a doctrinal statement, now lost, on the consubstantiality of the 3 persons of the Trin. and accepted a creed that was more developed than that of Nicaea (Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum; creed. or faith, of the 150 fathers; see also Ecumenical Creeds, B 1 b). 4 canons were adopted; 3 additional ones accepted in the E are probably spurious. The 1st canon condemns Arianism,* Apollinarianism (see Apollinaris of Laodicea), and Macedonianism*; the 2d imposed observance of diocesan and patriarchal limits on bps.; the 3d declared that because Constantinople was the new capital its bp. should have preeminence after the bp. of Rome; the 4th invalidated the consecration of Maximus as bp. of Constantinople. See also Schism, 4.
2. The 5th ecumenical council was called 553 by Justinian* I to condemn the so-called Three Chapters. The proceedings were dominated by the emp. See also Three Chapters, Controversy of; Origenistic Controversy; Scythian Monks.
See bibliography for Councils and Synods; J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); E. Honigmann, Trois mémoires posthumes d'histoire et de géographie de l'Orient chretien, ed. P. Devos (Brussels, 1961); A. M. Ritter, Das Konzil von Konstantinopel und sein Symbol: Studien zur Geschichte und Theologie des II. Ökumenischen Konzils (Göttingen, 1965). EL
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