(141418). The 2d of three 15th-c. councils intended to bring about a reformation of the ch. (see Councils and Synods, 7); held under John* XXIII and Sigismund.* The most influential members of the session were P. d'Ailly* and J. de Gerson.* The papal schism 13781417 (see Schism, 8) was settled; John XXIII (see John XXIII, 1) and Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1) were deposed; Gregory* XII abdicated; Martin* V was elected. J. Hus* and Jerome* of Prague were burned. Reforms were urged by lower clergy, monks, doctors, and professors, led by d'Ailly and Gerson and supported by the emp. But the would-be reformers disagreed among themselves and their agitation practically came to naught, largely because the abuses they attacked concerned such matters as papal procedure, administration and income of vacant benefices, simony, indulgences, and dispensations, from which the pope, cardinals, and other Roman ch. officials received much of their income. See also Wycliffe, John.
H. Finke, Forschungen und Quellen zur Geschichte des Konstanzer Konzils (Paderborn, 1889); Acta concilii Constanciensis, eds. H. Finke, J. Hollnsteiner, and H. Heimpel, 4 vols. (Münster in West-falen, 18961928).
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