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Concordances, Bible.

Books containing words of the Bible in alphabetic order, with their context usually given, and references by chap. and verse. The 1st concordances were of the Vulgate; tradition ascribes the 1st, Concordantiae morales, to Anthony* of Padua; Hugh* of St. Cher prepared an authentic concordance reputedly with the aid of 500 monks; other concordances to the Vulgate include F. P. Dutripon, Concordantiae bibliorum sacrorum (Paris, 1838; rev. G. Tonini 1861; 7th ed. 1880). The 1st Heb. concordance, Meor Natib (“Light of the Way”), was completed by Isaac (or Mordecai) Nathan ca. the middle of the 15th c. (pub. Venice, 1524); other Heb. concordances include S. Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti concordantiae Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1896–1900), 3d ed. corrected and supplemented by Moshe Henry Goshen-Gottstein, 1 vol. (Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv, 1955); G. Lisowsky and L. Rost, Konkordanz zum hebräischen Alten Testament (Stuttgart, 1958). The 1st Gk. concordance to the NT was that of the Luth. Sixt Birck (Xystus Betuleius; 1500–54) (Basel, 1546); the 2d was that of R. Estienne* I and Henri Estienne II, Concordantiae Graeco-Latinae Testamenti Novi (Paris, 1594; 2d ed. 1624); Erasmus Schmidt* (Schmied), Tamieion (“Treasury”) (Wittenberg, 1638), was the basis of subsequent similar works; other concordances to the Gk. NT include W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, A Concordance to the Greek Testament (Edinburgh, 1897; 4th ed. 1963 includes corrections by John F. Recks); O. Schmoller, Handkonkordanz zum griechischen Neuen Testament (Stuttgart, 1868; A. Schmoller ed. 12th ed. 1960); J. B. Smith, Greek-English Concordance to the New Testament (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, 1955). Konrad Kircher pub. a concordance to the LXX (Frankfurt, 1607) with the Heb. words in alphabetic order; Abraham van der Trommen pub. a concordance to the LXX (Utrecht, 1718) with the Gk. words in alphabetic order and with additional helps; E. Hatch* and H. A. Redpath* issued A Concordance to the Septuagint and the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books), 3 vols. (Oxford, 1892–1906). The 1st large Ger. concordance was by Conrad Bawr (Lat. Agricola) (Nürnberg, 1609); other Ger. concordances include that of G. Büchner* (Jena, 1750; many later eds.). The 1st concordance to the NT in English was pub. London ca. 1535 by Thomas Gybson; the 1st Eng. concordance to the whole Bible was that of John Marbeck* (London, 1550); Alexander Cruden's concordance to the whole Eng. Bible, completed 1737 (pub. London, 1738), was remarkably accurate and has been improved in its many eds. chiefly by addition of new features (e.g., Gk. and Heb.); other Eng. concordances include J. B. R. Walker, The Comprehensive Concordance to the Holy Scriptures (Boston, 1894; reissued repeatedly); J. Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (copyrighted 1890, but 1st ed. New York, 1894; 25th print. 1963); R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible (Edinburgh, 1879; many later eds.); Nelson's Complete Concordance of the Revised Standard Version Bible (New York, 1957); Concordance to the New English Bible: New Testament, comp. E.G. Elder (London, 1964; Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1965).

Readers who lack knowledge of Gk. and Heb. but desire to know the meaning of the original underlying a given Eng. word will find a list of concordances designed for that purpose with guidance in their use in F. Danker, Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1966). For a detailed list of older concordances see “Concordance,” J. M'Clintock and J. Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, II (New York, 1894), 454–456. EL, FWD

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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