A. Christian Educ. Defined. Christian educ. is as old as Christianity. It comprises the efforts of Christians to transmit their beliefs and religious practices to the next generation. The term Christian educ. is used in various meanings. It may cover the entire teaching program of the ch. including preaching and the instruction and training given in a Christian home. Thus used, the term Christian educ. embraces all activity for the conversion and strengthening of souls. In its strict sense, Christian educ. begins after a person becomes a child of God; it seeks to nourish, strengthen, protect. and perfect him by means of the Word of God. The term Christian educ. is most commonly used to describe the work of individuals or organizations that devote themselves to teaching the tenets of Christianity. Christian educ. is the work of man insofar as he teaches and applies the Word of God; it is the work of God insofar as the Holy Spirit alone makes the Word of God effective in the heart of man.
Religious educ. may or may not be Christian educ. The term may be used to describe the educ. efforts of any Christian or non-Christian religious group.
B. Early Christian Educ. Early Christians were faced with the problem of teaching the tenets of their religion in a world in which they were a small and persecuted minority. At first Christian instruction was given individually, with parents, deacons, and other mems., of the ch. teaching. But catechumen schools were soon opened. These were in session at stated periods during the week, in some cases every day. Instruction extended over a period of several yrs. Instruction in secular subjects was received from parents, private tutors, and in secular schools. Schools entirely in charge of Christian teachers came later, perhaps at the end of the 2d c. An effort was made to train teachers in catechetical schools. See also Catechetics, 2, 3.
C. Educ. in the Middle Ages. After ca. AD 500, formal educ. deteriorated and almost disappeared. Some monasteries taught reading and writing, some preserved and copied MSS Judged by modern standards, these educ. activities were extremely meager.
Ca. AD 800 Charlemagne* sponsored a movement for improved and more gen. educ. He brought to his court scholars, including Alcuin,* to promote and supervise schools. As a result, monastic schools increased in quantity and quality. Some offered educ. also for youths not preparing for monastic life. But there was no gen. pub. demand for educ. and the ch. failed to emphasize its importance.
Beginning with 12th c. schools became more numerous. Chantry schools were taught by priests. Sometimes only a select group of children were admitted, sometimes all who would come. In some cases instruction was free, in others a fee was required.
Guild schools were also organized, est. by merchants or craft guilds, chiefly for children of guild mems. though others also attended. In many communities these schools gradually became borough or town schools, supported by civil authorities. In many cases they were taught by priests. Subjects were largely reading and writing in the vernacular and Lat. arithmetic, and some geog. and hist. Much teaching was drill work. There were no textbooks; the teacher gen. dictated what the pupils were to learn. In gen. educ. was inadequate and reached comparatively few people.
Medieval schools emphasized the 7 liberal arts, including the trivium* and quadrivium.*
D. Luther and Educ.
1. Modern Christian educ. stems from the Reformation. The people of Luther's day were unschooled and ignorant, the papacy interested in educ. only insofar as it served to produce faithful and obedient subjects of the ch. Luther's proclamation of the Biblical doctrines of justification by faith and of the universal priesthood of believers liberated the individual from the domination of the ch. Thus educ. became an urgent necessity. Luther therefore advocated universal educ. that each individual might be prepared for faithful discharge of his duties toward God and man.
2. Luther's most important educ. treatises are An die Ratherren aller Städte deutsches Lands, dass sie christliche Schulen aufrichten und erhalten sollen (1524) and Eine Predigt, dass man Kinder zur Schule halten solle (1530). In these and other writings Luther insisted on adequate educ. for all children. He encouraged educ. on all levels. He emphasized Christian educ.: Where Holy Scripture does not rule, I certainly advise no one to send his child (WA 6, 462). He accepted the union of ch. and state of his day as a matter of expedience, urging the state to carry on and enforce a program of gen. educ. At the same time he continually reminded parents and the ch. of their duties in child training.
3. Luther's educ. principles may be summarized briefly: Parents are primarily responsible for the educ. of their children; universal educ. is a right and necessity; it is the duty of the state to est. schools and require regular attendance; the foundation of all school instruction is the Christian religion, but in addition children need to learn Lat. Gk. hist. math. singing, physical training, and the practical duties of life; boys should learn a trade, girls housework; children should be taught according to laws of learning, e.g. the knowledge of a thing should precede its name; the teacher must be properly trained; parents and children owe the teacher due respect, and he should be duly remunerated; the teacher, in turn, should by precept and example show himself worthy of respect; pastors need pedagogical training and teaching experience before entering a pastorate, because they are responsible for the school of their cong.; every school should have a library.
4. Luther helped provide textbooks for study in religion. Chief of these was the Small Catechism (see Catechisms, Luther's), which already in its 1st ed. recognized the value of visual aids; it included a number of illustrations. Luther's tr. of the Bible into the vernacular made its use possible in school. He urged use of the Bible as the chief and most frequently used reading book in both primary and high schools. The very young were to be kept in the gospels. Luther's hymns were also used in school.
5. On request of the Duke of Mansfeld, Luther took active part in est. 2 schools in Eisleben, one for primary, the other for secondary instruction. In their courses of study and in methods these schools became models for others. Great organizers of Luth. schools were P. Melanchthon* and J. Bugenhagen.* Melanchthon worked esp. in the interest of secondary educ. in Cen. and S Ger. Bugenhagen in N Ger. and Den.
6. Wherever the Reformation spread, educ. was part of it; Luther exerted great influence on parochial, private, and pub. schools of all Prot. countries. He also gave impetus to educ. in the RC Ch. inasmuch as the Reformation forced the RC Ch. to engage in gen. educ. as a measure of self-defense.
E. Luth. Educ. Since the Reformation.
1. Since the Reformation, Luth. schools have followed Lutheranism the world over. Before WW II they were found in Austria, Hungary, Swed. Norw. Den. Russia, Fin. Iceland, Australia, Can. the US, and S. Am. and in Luth. for. miss. fields in India, China, Afr. and elsewhere.
2. Where the Luth. Ch. is the state ch. (e.g. Norw.), Luth. doctrine may be taught in pub. schools. In other countries (e.g. the US and Can.), indep. schools are maintained by Luth. congs.
3. The 1st known Luth. school in Am. was est. by Swedes who settled on the Delaware 1638. Salzburgers est. a school at Ebenezer, Georgia 1734 and built up a system of Luth. schools; J. A. Treutlen,* 1st gov. of Georgia was a product of one of these schools. H. M. Mühlenberg* was instrumental in organizing many chs. and schools. Luth. schools of Scand., Ger. and Dutch origin fl. in New York, Pennsylvania New Jersey, Maryland the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia in the US colonial and early nat. period.
4. The oldest school in the Mo. Syn. is St. Matthew's, NYC, est. 1752 or 1753. Other early schools of the Mo. Syn.: Immanuel, Cole Camp Missouri 1834; Zion, Addison (Bensenville), Illinois, 1837; St. Paul's, Fort Wayne, Indiana 1837; St. John's, Marysville, Ohio 1838; schools est. by Saxons in St. Louis and Perry Co. Missouri 1839, and by Bavarians in the Saginaw Valley, Michigan 1845. See also Parish Education, D.
5. Early Luth. schools were often taught in parsonages by pastors and were in session only 3 or 4 days a week because of other demands on the pastor's time. As congs. became more stable, school bldgs. were erected, and full-time teachers were called in most cases.
6. Some Luth. groups discontinued their schools. Today there are wide differences in the various Luth. chs. in the emphasis placed on Christian educ. and on the agencies and means whereby Christian educ. is to be achieved. Apart from S. S. and VBS some Luth. bodies maintain practically no schools, except ministerial training schools and for. miss. schools. Others emphasize a complete system of Luth. educ. including elementary schools, high schools, and colleges.
7. Luth. elementary schools are usually maintained by individual congs. though some are interparish schools (central schools). Luth. high schools are gen. maintained as cen. schools by associations of congs. because they require a larger constituency. Seminaries, teachers' colleges, and preparatory schools are maintained by synods. Valparaiso U., Valparaiso, Indiana, is maintained by an assoc. of individuals.
8. Teachers for LCMS schools are trained at Conc. V. River Forest, Illinois, Conc. V. Seward, Nebraska and Conc. V. St. Paul, Minnesota Junior colleges (see Ministry, Education of, VIII C) provide preministerial and preteacher educ. Students in the theol. seminaries at St. Louis, Missouri and Ft. Wayne, Indiana receive some pedagogical training, because pastoral work involves teaching. For training teachers the Wisconsin Syn. maintains Dr. Martin Luther Coll. New Ulm, Minnesota. The ALC trains its teachers at Wartburg Coll. Waverly, Iowa.
9. All Luth. ch. bodies in the US maintain S. S., VBS released-time classes, Saturday schools, or other types of classes. The S. S. is the most popular of these. It was introd. early in the Luth. bodies that discontinued their parochial schools, but eventually in all Luth. synods. The S. S. usually provides a program of Christian educ. for all ages, from preschool to adult. Teacher training depts. are conducted in connection with most Luth. S. S. See also Parish Education, B, H 23, K 6.
10. The Luth. pastor is held to provide a special course of instruction prior to confirmation, which normally occurs at the age of ca. 13 or 14, but which may occur also at any time during adulthood. Those enrolled in a class that is being prepared for confirmation are called catechumens. Confirmation* admits the individual to communicant membership in the ch. but it is not to mark the end of Christian instruction.
11. The various Luth. ch. schools are frequently called agencies of Christian educ. In most cases these agencies are made to serve the twofold purpose of instruction for mems. of the cong. and winning the unchurched in the community. See also Parish Education, H.
12. Administration and supervision of Christian educ. rests chiefly in the local cong. which commonly elects a bd. of educ. to carry on its work under regulations contained in the constitution of the cong. or set up in greater detail apart from the constitution. As a rule, the regulations make the bd. responsible for the organization, management, and supervision of all educ. agencies and activities in the cong.; for increasing enrollments both of mems. and nonmembers; for executing resolutions of the cong. in educ. matters; for reporting regularly to the cong.; and for proposing changes and improvements in the cong. program of Christian educ.
13. The cong. bds. and committees of educ. are aided by official syn. and dist. bds. whose duty is the gen. supervision and promotion of parish educ. Most of the syn. bds. of parish educ. have staffs of full-time workers who counsel congs. in the promotion and improvement of their agencies and who prepare study materials for the various types of schools. They engage in research in Christian educ. and make their findings available, seeking to est. sound principles and policies of Christian educ. In the LCMS the Bd. for Parish Services is responsible for the larger program of parish educ. dealing only indirectly with the individual congs. though it publishes and promotes most of the educ. and promotional publications that serve the local cong. Corresponding Dist. bds. of Parish Educ. serve in specified geog. areas of the syn. and are in close touch with the work of the individual congs. Most districts have supts. who visit and counsel congs.
Current statistics are available in The Lutheran Annual.
1. Philosophies of educ. have their source in the view which men hold of God; of the origin, nature, and destiny of man; of truth; of the ch.; of the state; and of other related factors. Thus a philos. of educ. forms a pattern whereby those who are engaged in educ. seek to pass on to future generations a particular set of beliefs and a program of life consistent with these beliefs. Any philos. of Christian educ. is so largely determined by theol. that theol. outranks scientific investigation and the postulates of reason as a determinant of the philos.
2. The Luth. philos. of educ. is rooted in divine revelation. It gives place to findings of science and postulates of reason not at variance with divine revelation; e.g. educ. principles and practices that grow out of the origin and destiny of man are derived from revelation, which is divine and irrevocable truth to the Luth. educator. Principles and practices that grow out of the nature of man are derived in part from revelation (e.g. the fact that man is a sinful being), in part from reason or experience (e.g. certain facts which deal with the physical and psychological makeup of man).
3. The Luth. philos. of educ. recognizes the need of consistency in educ. and the desirability of educ. in nonconflicting environments, particularly in the case of the young. That is the reason for its insistence on Luth. schools for Luths. who engage in formal educ. (Luth. elementary schools, Luth. high schools, and Luth. coll. and universities), schools that foster the same educ. ideals as the Christian home. The Luth. philos. holds that home and ch. have rights and responsibilities in educ. prior to those of the state.
4. On the basis of revelation, Luth. educators hold that there is one Triune God, who created man and the universe; that man, rational and distinct from the animals, has a body and soul and has the commission to subdue the earth (Gn 1:28), that is. to make it useful for his own good and the good of his fellow men; that Adam and Eve, the first human beings, were created perfectly holy and righteous; that Adam and Eve sinned and that through their disobedience all mankind has become sinful; that the gracious God sacrificed His own Son Jesus Christ for the sins of mankind; that the believer in Christ's redemptive work has pardon for his sins and is saved and will finally go to heaven; that the believer, being a new creature in Christ and the dwelling-place of God's Holy Spirit, loves God and serves Him by prayer and worship, by hearing and reading God's Word, and by living and working in accordance with it; and that in Scripture God est. absolute standards of right and wrong. The Luth. educator's philos. revolves about God's grace, Christ's redemptive work, the faith of the believer, and eternal salvation.
5. At the same time Luth. education recognizes that the Christian lives in the world and faces such practical problems as making a living, discharging the duties of family life, getting along socially with his fellow men, keeping himself healthy, using his powers for the good of soc. and living a satisfying cultural life. The Luth. philos. of educ. therefore provides not only for teaching the way to salvation, but also for teaching the common requirements of life which are inherent in man's physical, soc. economic, cultural, and charitable duties and privileges. This calls for attitudes and skills which cover the entire range of man's intellectual, physical, emotional, and volitional life, and Luth. educ. seeks to train for these necessary attitudes and skills.
6. Due to its grounding in revelation, Luth. educ. is conservative and not easily swayed by new theories of thought. For example: Though it has recognized the contributions of progressive education in the field of methods and techniques, it has never accepted its underlying and motivating theory of the natural goodness of man and the perfectibility of man by human means. Because this theory is anti-Scriptural and anti-Christian, Luth. educ. rejects it.
7. Luth. educ. places a high value on the individual in accordance with the Biblical doctrine of the universal priesthood.
8. While the philos. of Luth. educ. calls for Luth. schools for all Luths. who engage in the pursuits of formal educ. (elementary schools, high schools, colleges, and univs.), the practice has not been everywhere consistent with the ideal. Insufficient concentration of Luth. pop. in a given area, unsatisfactory economic circumstances of the Luth. constituency, or other factors have made the ideal impossible of attainment in many communities. It stands nevertheless as an ideal and as a goal, at least in the Luth. bodies that maintain a system of complete ch. schools on all levels.
9. S. S., VBS released-time classes, Bible classes, and other ch. schools and classes are part of the larger educ. program of the ch. and are maintained and promoted to achieve those aims and objectives of Luth. educ. which can be achieved by these means, as well as to reach those mems. of the ch. who cannot be reached by any other means. As to these agencies, the Luth. Ch. holds that people of all ages are in need of Christian educ. that they might grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2 Ptr 3:18). For that reason classes are maintained for all age levels, from nursery age to adulthood.
H. Aims and Objectives of Christian Educ.
1. The ultimate aim of Christian educ. is the perfect restoration of the image of God which was lost in the fall of man. This aim is achieved partially when man comes to faith in Christ and will be fully achieved when the believer enters heaven through a blissful death. All intermediate aims of Christian educ. center about the ultimate aim. The purpose of Christian educ. for life on earth is to restore the Christian to his former blessed state as completely as possible; it is to train men and women who know God as well as He can be known by sinful man, men and women who are sure of their faith in Jesus Christ and of their salvation, and who find their greatest joy in serving God and their fellow men. In short, the aim is an ever-increasing degree of sanctification, which C. F. W. Walther* described as follows: 1. An ever-increasing enlightenment of the mind; 2. an ever-increasing purification and renewal of the heart; 3. an ever-increasing zeal in a life of good works (Das waite Gott! pp. 146147).
2. The purpose of Christian educ. and training is to guide, direct, preserve, and strengthen the learner, all in keeping with the Word and will of God; to help him develop a Christian view of life; to prepare him for service in home, ch. country, and occupation; and to strengthen all other Christian virtues in him. Christian educ. seeks to develop the individual so that he may become an effective priest for his own person and his own household, as well as an effective witness to the unbelievers about him.
3. Statements of the objectives of Christian educ. organized systematically and set forth in varying degrees of detail, are found scattered through the publications of the ch. Most of these statements agree in the fundamentals, though they vary greatly in form and in organization. Briefly, they emphasize knowledge of Scriptural truths and the application of these truths to daily living; preparation for worthy membership in the Christian home and family; active and intelligent ch. membership; active participation in the evangelization of the unchurched community; and the application of Christian principles to the soc. economic, and pol. problems of the community and nation.
I. Teaching Materials.
1. The Bible is basic in any program of Christian educ. and its content and teaching are emphasized in the teaching materials, though the Bible itself may not always be used by the class. In Luth. parochial schools, Luther's Small Catechism (see Catechisms, Luther's) is commonly used for systematic instruction in doctrine. This catechism and its exposition contain a summary of the chief Bible doctrines. A shorter or longer Bible History containing selections from the Bible, usually in Bible language, may be used to teach the most important Biblical historical data in chronological order. Additional Bible reading or Bible study is carried on. In confirmation instruction, Luther's Small Catechism is the basic textbook. Luth. schools use other modern materials in their religion classes, including workbooks, films, pictures, and similar materials. If a trend can be noted, it is in the direction of more direct study of the Bible itself.
2. Due to varying conditions (length of school term, length of instruction period, different types of students) in the separate agencies, most larger ch. bodies provide materials that meet as nearly as possible the distinctive needs of the various agencies, such as the parochial school, S. S., VBS releasedtime classes, or Bible classes. This condition poses difficult problems of coordination of materials, because many pupils are enrolled in 2 or more agencies.
3. The preparation of materials for parochial schools presents the greatest problem, because the parochial school is more than a school to which a course in religion has been added; it is a school in which the Word of God runs like a golden thread through everything that is taught and learned. This is esp. true in such subjects as hist. geog. civics, literature, sociology, art. and science.
4. The LCMS publishes materials for the religion classes of its parochial schools, a gen. curriculum guide, curricula for all school subjects, a ch. hist. textbook, a reading series, an art series, a textbook in physical educ. a music reader and music collections, record forms, and other materials, besides a number of professional books for the teacher.
J. Legislation Pertaining to Christian Educ.
1. Even in a country that maintains the separation of ch. and state, such as the US, there are a number of areas in the field of Christian educ. where the interests of ch. and state meet, and where legislation is necessary to clarify issues, insure justice, and assure orderly procedure. This legislation deals chiefly with educ. standards and supervision, and with provisions for needed soc. services.
2. There have been times when unfavorable legislation threatened the existence of parochial schools in a number of states. During and after WW I, private and parochial schools on the elementary level were opposed by some as un-American, partly because of for. languages taught in some of them. A number of schools were closed unlawfully by violence. After this war, the opponents sought to close them by legal means. A number of states passed laws to prohibit the use of any but the Eng. language in the elementary school grades. All such laws were declared unconstitutional when the US Supreme Court 1923 ruled against the for.-language laws of Nebraska and other states. Oregon passed a law 1922 outlawing all private and parochial schools on the elementary level. In 1925 also this law was declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court. The unconstitutionality of the various laws was found chiefly in their restriction of the rights of parents to choose the school and the educ. for their children. Unfavorable legislation which appeared in Can., notably in the province of Alta. during the same period, was later likewise repealed.
3. Legislation pertaining to standards of bldgs. equipment, and the school subjects outside of religion in many cases has been a means of improving the educ. program of parochial schools.
4. The question of fed. aid for parochial schools had long been debated when, in 1965, the US Congress passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which provided some funds to benefit children in these schools. The framers of the Act intended that children in ch.-related and private schools should benefit the same as pub. school children in similar circumstances. The benefits may take many forms: remedial reading, dual enrollment whereby children enrolled in ch.-related schools may attend some classes in pub. schools, welfare services, and others aimed at equalizing educ. opportunity. Because of emphasis on equalizing educ. opportunity, the larger appropriations under ESEA are for educ. deprived children. Loan of library books and other materials is also provided for. All services are provided under pub. auspices; books or materials used by parochial school children are on loan from the pub. agency. Administrators and teachers in ch.-related and private schools often participate in planning projects for all schools in a district. Since 1944 the Mo. Syn. has held that the ch. may accept aid for its soc. service program. In 1965 it resolved that federal aid for children attending nonpublic schools, as authorized by the Congress and defined by the courts, be deemed acceptable so long as it does not interfere with the distinctive purposes for which such schools are maintained (Proceedings of the 46th Regular Convention, pp. 153154). Aid to parochial schools is opposed by many in the US on the ground that it violates the principles of separation of ch. and state and that it jeopardizes the welfare of pub. schools. ESEA represents compromise legislation in that it makes the aid available only to children and not to schools directly (child benefit theory).
5. State laws and local ordinances permit release of pub. school pupils to the ch. of their choice for religious instruction. Pub. school authorities in many communities are glad to offer school time for such released-time instruction. The management of released-time classes is the responsibility of the ch. which sponsors them. But the school usually requires 1. that parents request in writing the release of their children for a specified time; 2. that the ch. conducting the classes furnish the school with enrollment attendance reports; 3. that teachers instructing released-time classes be qualified to teach. These requirements deal with standards and with maintenance of good order and are not designed to control the educ. program of the participating ch. In 1962 and 1963 the US Supreme Court declared unconstitutional arrangements providing for and/or requiring Scripture reading, Lord's Prayer, and/or another prayer in pub. schools.
K. Judging Results of Christian Educ.
1. Judging results of Christian educ. in terms of doctrinal knowledge and other subject matter presents no great problem, but Christianity deals ultimately with attitudes and beliefs, with such elements as spiritual advancement, faith, and Christian life. These are difficult, if not impossible, to judge scientifically by existing instruments of measurement.
2. To some extent, results of Christian educ. may be judged by observation. Strengths and weaknesses of a ch. body mirror to a large extent its educ. system. Behavior of pupils in school, the attitude of an individual toward sin, his attitude when he has committed a wrong, his willingness to confess his Savior by word and deed, his trust in God in the time of trouble and need, his prayer life, his love toward God and His Word, his desire to lead a godly lifethese are to a certain degree measurable elements for the observant educator. In the case of adults the observer may also judge on the basis of faithfulness in hearing God's Word and partaking of Communion, active participation in ch. work, contributions in money and service, the quality of home life, zeal in witness-bearing, and similar evidences that Christian instruction has been effective.
3. In all these judgments it must be remembered that the final aim for a Christian is eternal life, that also weak faith saves, and that the Old Adam at times creates embarrassing situations for even the best of Christians. Viewed in this light, Christian educ. is seen in terms of souls won for Christ, each of which is worth more than all the riches of the world.
4. In gen. Christian educators take for granted that results correspond largely to the quantity and quality of the Christian educ. received. Earnest Christian homes, Christian chs. that cling firmly to the Word of God, and schools in which the Word of God runs like a golden thread through all that is taught, ordinarily combine, by the grace of God, to develop strong Christians, willing witnesses for God, loyal members of the home, faithful ch. mems. and good citizens. WAK
See also Parish Education; Protestant Education in the United States; Schools, Church-Related.
W. H. Beck, Lutheran Elementary Schools in the United States, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1965); P. Bretscher, Toward a Lutheran Philosophy of Education, CTM XIV (1943), 833, 8195; A. W. C. Guebert, Luther's Contribution to Modern Elementary Education, Lutheran School Journal, LXXIV (November 1938), 100106; A. H. Jahsmann, What's Lutheran in Education? (St. Louis, 1960); E. W. A. Koehler, A Christian Pedagogy (St. Louis, 1930); The Lutheran One-Teacher School, ed. W. A. Kramer (St. Louis, 1949); Religion in Lutheran Schools, ed. W. A. Kramer (St. Louis, 1949); Lutheran Elementary Schools in Action, ed. V. C. Krause (St. Louis, 1963); E. A. W. Krauss, The Missouri Synod and Its Parochial School System, in Ebenezer, ed. W. H. T. Dau (St. Louis, 1922), pp. 208228; O. P. Kretzmann, Christian Education in the Second Century, Lutheran School Journal, LXXXII (June 1947), 438444; P. E. Kretzmann, A Brief History of Education (St. Louis, ) and The Aims of Christian Education, CTM VII (November 1937), 842848; J. C. W. Lindemann, Luther als Reformator des deutschen Schulwesens, Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt, I (1866), 129140, 161171, 193205, 225233, 257260, 289293, 321330, 353361; II, 610, 3337, 6573; (1867), 129133, 161165, 193 to 196, 257261,289295, 321334, 353362; A. G. Melvin, Education (New York, 1946), pp. 108140; A. C. Mueller, The Call to Teach Secular Subjects, Lutheran Education, LXXXVIII (October 1952), 5965; F. Nohl, A Curriculum Guide for Lutheran Elementary Schools, 3 vols. (St. Louis, 1964); F. V. N. Painter, Luther on Education (St. Louis, 1928); 100 Years of Christian Education, ed. A. C. Repp (River Forest, Illinois, 1947); D. C. Schilke, The Christian Philosophy of Education, Lutheran School Journal, LXXII (June 1937), 439444; A. C. Stellhorn, The Meaning of a Lutheran Education, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1928), and Schools of The Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod (St. Louis, 1963); H. C. Theiss, Distinctive Lutheran Ideals in the Field of Education, American Lutheran, XXIII (December 1940), 78; see also bibliography under Catechetics.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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