(Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel). Founded as a hermit colony on Mount Carmel ca. 1154. The Primitive rule laid down by Albert* the Blessed ca. 1207/09 prescribed absolute poverty, solitude, and total abstinence from meat. After the Crusades,* many mems. of the order went to Eur. and reorganized as a mendicant order. An Order of Carmelite Sisters was founded in the Low Countries 1452. The order stresses devotion to Mary and the child Jesus; early defended Immaculate Conception. Habit: dark brown; brown scapular; white mantle (hence White Friars). See also Barefooted Monks; Mendicant Friars.
R. McCaffrey, The White Friars (Dublin, 1926).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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